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Toward isolating channel proteins from Paramecium, we have explored the possibility of functionally reconstituting ion channels in an artificial system. Proteins from Paramecium cortex reconstituted with soybean azolectin retained several channels whose activities were readily registered under patch clamp. The most commonly encountered activities were(More)
Mechanosensitive ion channels use mechanical energy to gate the dissipation of electrochemical gradients across cell membranes. This function is fundamental to physiological processes such as hearing and touch. In electrophysiological studies of ion channels in the plasma membrane of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, channels were observed that were(More)
YKC1 (TOK1, DUK1, YORK) encodes the outwardly rectifying K+ channel of the yeast plasma membrane. Non-targeted mutations of YKC1 were isolated by their ability to completely block proliferation when expressed in yeast. All such mutations examined occurred near the cytoplasmic ends of the transmembrane segments following either of the duplicated P loops,(More)
The current through TOK1 (YKC1), the outward-rectifying K+ channel in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was amplified by expressing TOK1 from a plasmid driven by a strong constitutive promoter. TOK1 so hyper-expressed could overcome the K+ auxotrophy of a mutant missing the two K+ transporters, TRK1 and TRK2. This trk1Delta trk2Delta double mutant hyperexpressing(More)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common acquired diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in preterm infants. Some randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) have indicated that probiotics may potentially lower the incidence of NEC and mortality. However, debate still remains about the safety of probiotics and their influence on normal infant(More)
Our previous patch-clamp studies showed that depolarization activates a K(+)-specific current in the plasma membrane of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Gustin et al. (1986) Science 233, 1195-1197]. The Yeast Genome Sequencing Project has now uncovered on the left arm of chromosome X an open reading frame (ORF) that predicts a 77-kDa protein(More)
Bean leaf stomata provide a topographical signal that induces germlings of the phytopathogen Uromyces appendiculatus to develop specialized infection structures. Protoplasts from germ tubes of this fungus, when examined with patch-clamp electrodes, displayed the activities of a 600-picosiemen mechanosensitive ion channel. This channel passes a variety of(More)
Protoplast protuberances (blebs) of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were examined using the patch-clamp technique. In addition to several voltage-gated ion channels, we encountered the activities of a mechanosensitive ion channel with a conductance of 180 pS. Microscopic currents of one or two units were observed in some excised patches and ensemble currents of(More)
The problem of finding intrinsic parameters of a camera is extremely important for practical applications. In this paper, we present an approach for automatic estimation of intrinsic parameters from images by using the vanishing points in orthogonal directions. Firstly, image lines are extracted and clustered into groups corresponding to three dominant(More)
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