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Leptin is well known to be involved in the control of feeding, reproduction and neuroendocrine functions through its action on the hypothalamus. However, leptin receptors are found in brain regions other than the hypothalamus (including the hippocampus and cerebral cortex) suggesting extrahypothalamic functions. We investigated hippocampal long-term(More)
Glucose-sensitive neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area produce orexin-A (hypocretin-1) and orexin-B (hypocretin-2) and send their axons to the hippocampus, which predominantly expresses orexin receptor 1 showing a higher sensitivity to orexin-A. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of orexin-A on the performance of Wistar rats(More)
By performing a whole genome screen in an F2 intercross of two strains of mice (A/J and C57BL/6J), which differ markedly in their behavioral response to a brightly lit open field (O-F), we have mapped several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for this complex behavioral phenotype. QTL on chromosomes 1 and 10 were identified that affect both initial ambulation(More)
Early-life exposure to bacterial endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), can provide neuroprotection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) during adulthood, possibly through altering the responsiveness of the immune system. Here, we show that exposure of LPS to neonatal rats resulted in a sustained elevation of corticosterone level(More)
To define the genetic contributions affecting individual differences in seizure threshold, a beta carboline [methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCM)]-induced model of generalized seizures was genetically dissected in mice. beta-CCM is a GABAA receptor inverse agonist and convulsant. By measuring the latency to generalized seizures after beta-CCM(More)
We present a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing rate simulation with an acceleration rate falling within the range of experiments. The simulation uses front tracking to prevent interfacial mass diffusion. We present evidence to support the assertion that the lower acceleration rate found in untracked simulations is caused, at least to a large extent, by a reduced(More)
SRY-related high-mobility-group box 9 (Sox9) gene is a cartilage-specific transcription factor that plays essential roles in chondrocyte differentiation and cartilage formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of genetic delivery of Sox9 to enhance chondrogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem(More)
Epidemiological studies of short and long sleepers have not been conducted previously. We collected socioeconomic, psychological, and polysomnographic characteristics of 6501 parents (3252 men and 3249 women) of 4036 primary school children in Guangzhou city. The study data were collected in three phases. The overall prevalence of short (5 h or less) and(More)