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Cocaine and methylphenidate block uptake by neuronal plasma membrane transporters for dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Cocaine also blocks voltage-gated sodium channels, a property not shared by methylphenidate. Several lines of evidence have suggested that cocaine blockade of the dopamine transporter (DAT), perhaps with additional contributions(More)
Cocaine blocks uptake by neuronal plasma membrane transporters for dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine, producing subjective effects in humans that are both euphoric/rewarding and also fearful, jittery and aversive. Mice with gene knockouts of each of these transporters display cocaine reward, manifest by cocaine place preferences that are at least as(More)
Homozygous transgenic knockout mice without mu-opioid receptors lack morphine-induced antinociception, locomotion, tolerance, physical dependence, and reward. mu receptors thus appear to play central roles in these morphine actions. Different levels of mu receptor expression are found in different humans and in different animal strains. In vitro studies(More)
Early-life exposure to bacterial endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), can provide neuroprotection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) during adulthood, possibly through altering the responsiveness of the immune system. Here, we show that exposure of LPS to neonatal rats resulted in a sustained elevation of corticosterone level(More)
Neurokinin B (NKB) and its receptor (NK3R) are coexpressed with kisspeptin, Dynorphin A (Dyn), and their receptors [G-protein-coupled receptor-54 (GPR54)] and κ-opioid receptor (KOR), respectively] within kisspeptin/NKB/Dyn (KNDy) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), the proposed site of the GnRH pulse generator. Much previous research has(More)
Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a pivotal role in stress-induced suppression of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse generator. We have previously shown that type 2 CRF receptors (CRF(2)) mediate restraint stress-induced suppression of luteinising hormone (LH) pulses in the rat. The present study aimed: (i) to determine whether type 1 CRF(More)
ANG II contributes importantly to the regulation of renal vascular resistance, glomerular filtration, and tubular epithelial transport, yet there remains a paucity of information regarding the localization of the ANG II type 1 and 2 (AT1 and AT2) receptors within the rat kidney particularly within the vasculature. The present study was designed to localize(More)
Identification of kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its G protein-coupled receptor 54 (Kiss1r) as an essential component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis controlling gonadotrophin secretion raises the possibility that kisspeptin-Kiss1r signalling may play a critical role in the transduction of stress-induced suppression of reproduction. We examined the(More)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is implicated in the suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion by a variety of stressful stimuli; 17beta-oestradiol (E2) has been shown to modulate this inhibitory response. The present study in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was designed to investigate the effect of E2 and progesterone (P4) on(More)
Homozygous mu-opioid receptor (MOR) knockout (KO) mice developed on a chimeric C57B6/129SV background lack morphine-induced antinociception, locomotion and reward. Therefore it appears that MOR largely mediates these morphine actions. However, one factor that could affect the extent of knockout deficits in morphine-induced behavior is the genetic background(More)