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Transforming growth factor-beta TGF-beta is the prototype for a family of extracellular proteins that affect cell proliferation and tissue differentiation. TGF-beta-related factors, including BMP-2/4, Dpp and activin, act through two types of serine/threonine kinase receptors which can form a heteromeric complex. However, the mechanism of signal(More)
Osteoclasts express the alphavbeta3 integrin, an adhesion receptor that has been implicated in bone resorption and that is therefore a potential therapeutic target. To assess the role of this heterodimer in skeletal development in vivo, we engineered mice in which the gene for the beta3 integrin subunit was deleted. Bone marrow macrophages derived from(More)
The liver is an important target organ of thyroid hormone. However, only a limited number of hepatic target genes have been identified, and little is known about the pattern of their regulation by thyroid hormone. We used a quantitative fluorescent cDNA microarray to identify novel hepatic genes regulated by thyroid hormone. Fluorescent-labeled cDNA(More)
Mass spectrometry provides rapid and quantitative identification of protein species with relatively low sample consumption. The trend towards biological analysis at increasingly smaller scales, ultimately down to the volume of an individual cell, continues, and mass spectrometry with a sensitivity of a few to single molecules will be necessary.(More)
Osteoclastic bone resorption requires cell-matrix contact, an event mediated by the alpha v beta 3 integrin. The structural components of the integrin that mediate osteoclast function are, however, not in hand. To address this issue, we generated mice lacking the beta 3 integrin gene, which have dysfunctional osteoclasts. Here, we show the full rescue of(More)
Patients with TSH-secreting pituitary tumors (TSHomas) have high serum TSH levels despite elevated thyroid hormone levels. The mechanism for this defect in the negative regulation of TSH secretion is not known. We performed RT-PCR to detect mutations in TRbeta from a surgically resected TSHoma. Analyses of the RT-PCR products revealed a 135-bp deletion(More)
Human cryptosporidiosis is attributed to two major Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes of which type 1 appears to be the predominant. Most laboratory investigations however are performed using genotype 2 isolates, the only type which readily infects laboratory animals. So far type 1 has only been identified in humans and primates. A type 1 isolate, obtained(More)
Very high frequency (VHF) nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) provide unprecedented sensitivity for inertial mass sensing. We demonstrate in situ measurements in real time with mass noise floor approximately 20 zg. Our best mass resolution corresponds to approximately 7 zg, equivalent to approximately 30 xenon atoms or the mass of an individual 4 kDa(More)
The terrestrial carbon cycle is one of the foci in global climate change research. Simulating net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is important for carbon cycle research. In this study, China's terrestrial NPP was simulated using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), a carbon-water coupled process model based on remote(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC) links various extracellular signals to intracellular responses and is activated by diverse intracellular factors including diacylglycerol, Ca2+, and arachidonic acid. In this study, using a fully functional green fluorescent protein conjugated PKCbetaII (GFP-PKCbetaII), we demonstrate a novel approach to study the dynamic(More)