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This article reviews the preliminary experiences and the results obtained on the human brain at 4 T at the University of Minnesota. Anatomical and functional images are presented. Contrary to initial expectations and the early results, it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of the human brain with exquisite T1 contrast, delineating structures(More)
This article describes experimental studies performed to demonstrate the feasibility of BOLD fMRI using echo-planar imaging (EPI) at 7 T and to characterize the BOLD response in humans at this ultrahigh magnetic field. Visual stimulation studies were performed in normal subjects using high-resolution multishot EPI sequences. Changes in R(*)(2) arising from(More)
BACKGROUND The light-harvesting complexes II (LH-2s) are integral membrane proteins that form ring-like structures, oligomers of alpha beta-heterodimers, in the photosynthetic membranes of purple bacteria. They contain a large number of chromophores organized optimally for light absorption and rapid light energy migration. Recently, the structure of the(More)
Image-to-image fluctuation due to physiological motion is a major limitation to the accurate detection of neuronal activity with functional MRI. In this paper, a new and general technique for the estimation and compensation of the physiological effects is presented. By simultaneously monitoring the respiration and heart beat during the acquisition of(More)
A physical map has been constructed of the human genome containing 15,086 sequence-tagged sites (STSs), with an average spacing of 199 kilobases. The project involved assembly of a radiation hybrid map of the human genome containing 6193 loci and incorporated a genetic linkage map of the human genome containing 5264 loci. This information was combined with(More)
N-CoR and SMRT are transcriptional corepressors that associate with nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) in the absence of ligand. This interaction is the molecular target of differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukaemia, wherein retinoic acid dissociates corepressor from leukaemogenic receptor fusion proteins. Binding of ligand to NRs induces a(More)
Optical imaging studies have provided evidence of an initial increase in deoxyhemoglobin following the onset of neuronal stimulation/activation and demonstrated that this initial increase could be spatially more specific to the site of neuronal activity. These studies also raised the possibility of improving the specificity of fMRI by selective mapping of(More)
In agreement with optical imaging studies, previous fMRI studies have reported an initial decrease (i.e. the initial dip) in the BOLD response, which is believed to arise from an increase in oxygen consumption and to be mostly microvascular. To date, experimental studies of the initial dip in humans have been performed at fields up to 4 T, with relatively(More)
A putative yeast sn-2 acyltransferase gene (SLC1-1), reportedly a variant acyltransferase that suppresses a genetic defect in sphingolipid long-chain base biosynthesis, has been expressed in a yeast SLC deletion strain. The SLC1-1 gene product was shown in vitro to encode an sn-2 acyltransferase capable of acylating sn-1 oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid, using(More)
The Snail protein functions as a transcriptional regulator to establish early mesodermal cell fate. Later, in germ band-extended embryos, Snail is also expressed in most neuroblasts. Here we present evidence that this expression of Snail is required for central nervous system (CNS) development. The neural function of snail is masked by two closely linked(More)