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Germline mutations of the Brca1 tumor suppressor gene predispose women to breast and ovarian cancers. To study mechanisms underlying BRCA1-related tumorigenesis, we derived mouse embryonic fibroblast cells carrying a targeted deletion of exon 11 of the Brca1 gene. We show that the mutant cells maintain an intact G1-S cell cycle checkpoint and proliferate(More)
G1/S and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints maintain genomic stability in eukaryotes in response to genotoxic stress. We report here both genetic and functional evidence of a Gadd45-mediated G2/M checkpoint in human and murine cells. Increased expression of Gadd45 via microinjection of an expression vector into primary human fibroblasts arrests the cells at the(More)
Recently Gadd45, a p53-regulated stress protein, has been implicated in the activation of a G2/M checkpoint after damage by UV radiation and alkylating agents. While inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2 and suppression of cyclin B1 levels are known to be involved in G2 delays after genotoxic stress, Gadd45 has now been found to directly inhibit the activity(More)
p53 has pleiotropic functions including control of genomic plasticity and integrity. Here we report that p53 can bind to several transcription factor IIH-associated factors, including transcription-repair factors, XPD (Rad3) and XPB, as well as CSB involved in strand-specific DNA repair, via its C-terminal domain. We also found that wild-type, but not(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and the major risk factors include chronic infections with the hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV) virus, and exposure to dietary aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) or alcohol consumption. Multiple genetic and epigenetic changes are involved in the molecular pathogenesis of HCC, for example,(More)
Chronic active hepatitis caused by infection with hepatitis B virus, a DNA virus, is a major risk factor for human hepatocellular carcinoma. Since the oncogenicity of several DNA viruses is dependent on the interaction of their viral oncoproteins with cellular tumor-suppressor gene products, we investigated the interaction between hepatitis B virus X(More)
The molecular pathway of p53-dependent apoptosis (programmed cell death) is poorly understood. Because p53 binds to the basal transcription-repair complex TFIIH and modulates its DNA helicase activities, we hypothesized that TFIIH DNA helicases XPB and XPD are members of the p53-mediated apoptotic pathway. Whereas transfer of a wild-type p53 expression(More)
The p33ING1 protein is a regulator of cell cycle, senescence, and apoptosis. Three alternatively spliced transcripts of p33ING1 encode p47ING1a, p33ING1b, and p24ING1c. We cloned an additional ING family member, p33ING2/ING1L. Unlike p33ING1b, p33ING2 is induced by the DNA-damaging agents etoposide and neocarzinostatin. p33ING1b and p33ING2 negatively(More)
The Bloom syndrome (BS) protein, BLM, is a member of the RecQ DNA helicase family that also includes the Werner syndrome protein, WRN. Inherited mutations in these proteins are associated with cancer predisposition of these patients. We recently discovered that cells from Werner syndrome patients displayed a deficiency in p53-mediated apoptosis and WRN(More)
The WRN DNA helicase is a member of the DExH-containing DNA helicase superfamily that includes XPB, XPD, and BLM. Mutations in WRN are found in patients with the premature aging and cancer susceptibility syndrome known as Werner syndrome (WS). p53 binds to the WRN protein in vivo and in vitro through its carboxyl terminus. WS fibroblasts have an attenuated(More)