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Preparedness for a possible influenza pandemic caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtype H5N1 has become a global priority. The spread of the virus to Europe and continued human infection in Southeast Asia have heightened pandemic concern. It remains unknown from where the pandemic strain may emerge; current attention is directed at Vietnam,(More)
H9N2 influenza viruses have become established in terrestrial poultry in different Asian countries over the last 2 decades. Our previous study demonstrated that quail harbor increasingly diverse novel H9N2 reassortants, including both Chicken/Beijing/1/94 (Ck/Bei-like) and Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (G1-like) viruses. However, since 1999, the genesis and(More)
The development of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses in poultry in Eurasia accompanied with the increase in human infection in 2006 suggests that the virus has not been effectively contained and that the pandemic threat persists. Updated virological and epidemiological findings from our market surveillance in southern China demonstrate that(More)
Coronaviruses can infect a variety of animals including poultry, livestock, and humans and are currently classified into three groups. The interspecies transmissions of coronaviruses between different hosts form a complex ecosystem of which little is known. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recent identification of new(More)
Ammonia volatilization, denitrification loss and total nitrogen (N) loss (unaccounted-for N) have been investigated from N fertilizer applied to a calcareous sandy loam fluvo-aquic soil at Fengqiu in the North China Plain. Ammonia volatilization was measured by the micrometeorological mass balance method, denitrification by the acetylene inhibition – soil(More)
Since it was first detected in 1996, the Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (Gs/GD) H5N1 influenza virus and its reassortants have spread to over 60 countries, with over 20 distinct genetic reassortants previously recognized. However, systematic analysis of their interrelationship and the development of genetic diversity have not been explored. As each of those(More)
PKD1 is the most common site for mutations in human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). ADPKD is characterized by progressive replacement of kidney tissue by epithelial cysts and eventual renal failure. Hepatic and pancreatic cysts are also common. The PKD1 protein, polycystin, is a cell-surface protein of unknown function that is widely(More)
Ependymomas are common childhood brain tumours that occur throughout the nervous system, but are most common in the paediatric hindbrain. Current standard therapy comprises surgery and radiation, but not cytotoxic chemotherapy as it does not further increase survival. Whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing of 47 hindbrain ependymomas reveals an extremely(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Studies have shown that gastric T cells are increased during Helicobacter pylori infection. The purpose of this study was to characterize the human gastric T-cell responses in the presence or absence of H. pylori. METHODS T-cell surface antigens were examined by immunohistochemistry or after isolation for evaluation of surface antigens(More)
Multiple reassortment events between different subtypes of endemic avian influenza viruses have increased the genomic diversity of influenza viruses circulating in poultry in southern China. Gene exchange from the natural gene pool to poultry has contributed to this increase in genetic diversity. However, the role of domestic ducks as an interface between(More)