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Mutations of the gene Lps selectively impede lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signal transduction in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice, rendering them resistant to endotoxin yet highly susceptible to Gram-negative infection. The codominant Lpsd allele of C3H/HeJ mice was shown to correspond to a missense mutation in the third exon of the Toll-like receptor-4 gene(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is homologous to the product of the Drosophila gene shaggy (zeste-white 3), which is required for signalling by wingless during Drosophila development. To test whether GSK-3 is also involved in vertebrate pattern formation, its role was investigated during early Xenopus development. It was found that dominant-negative(More)
In Xenopus laevis embryos, the Wingless/Wnt-1 subclass of Wnt molecules induces axis duplication, whereas the Wnt-5A subclass does not. This difference could be explained by distinct signal transduction pathways or by a lack of one or more Wnt-5A receptors during axis formation. Wnt-5A induced axis duplication and an ectopic Spemann organizer in the(More)
Signaling mechanisms underlying neurotrophic regulation of synaptic transmission are not fully understood. Here we show that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-induced potentiation of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular synapses is blocked by inhibition of phosphoinositide-3 kinase, phospholipase C-gamma or the downstream IP3 receptors of phospholipase C-gamma,(More)
The Wnt family of secreted signalling molecules are essential in embryo development and tumour formation. The Frizzled (Fz) family of serpentine receptors function as Wnt receptors, but how Fz proteins transduce signalling is not understood. In Drosophila, arrow phenocopies the wingless (DWnt-1) phenotype, and encodes a transmembrane protein that is(More)
A novel region referred to as the POU-domain is present in two tissue-specific transcription factors, Pit-1 and Oct-2, that activate expression of genes specifying pituitary and lymphocyte phenotypes. We report the identification of multiple new members of a large family of POU-domain genes expressed in adult brain, and document that all the known mammalian(More)
Event-related potentials were recorded to investigate the mechanisms of hierarchical processing and level-repetition effect. Participants identified targets that appeared at global, local, or both levels of hierarchical patterns. Reaction times showed global precedence and level-repetition effects. An occipital P1 wave was enhanced to local relative to(More)
The current study aimed to investigate the effect of attentional selection of distinctive local elements on the processing of hierarchically organized patterns. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from subjects during identifications of global or local shapes of hierarchical patterns where either all local elements were identical(More)
Modeling biophysical processes is a complex endeavor because of large data requirements and uncertainty in model parameters. Model predictions should incorporate, when possible, analyses of their uncertainty and sensitivity. The study incorporated uncertainty analysis on EPIC (Environmental Policy Impact Calculator) predictions of corn (Zea mays L.) yield(More)
Mutations of the presenilin-1 gene are a major cause of familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Presenilin-1 can associate with members of the catenin family of signalling proteins, but the significance of this association is unknown. Here we show that presenilin-1 forms a complex with beta-catenin in vivo that increases beta-catenin stability. Pathogenic(More)