Wyndy L. Wiitala

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BACKGROUND The Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial previously showed that intensive glucose lowering, as compared with standard therapy, did not significantly reduce the rate of major cardiovascular events among 1791 military veterans (median follow-up, 5.6 years). We report the extended follow-up of the study participants. METHODS After the conclusion of the(More)
BACKGROUND Along with the increasing prevalence of chronic illness has been an increase in interventions, such as nurse case management programs, to improve outcomes for patients with chronic illness. Evidence supports the effectiveness of such interventions in reducing patient morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization, but other studies have produced(More)
BACKGROUND Critical care resource use accounts for almost 1% of US gross domestic product and varies widely among hospitals. However, we know little about the initial decision to admit a patient to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS To describe hospital ICU admitting patterns for medical patients after accounting for severity of illness on admission,(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Corticosteroids are effective for the short-term treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Long-term use, however, is associated with significant adverse effects. To define the: (1) frequency and duration of corticosteroid use, (2) frequency of escalation to corticosteroid-sparing therapy, (3) rate of complications related to(More)
This article discusses the meta-analysis of raw mean differences. It presents a rationale for cumulating psychological effects in a raw metric and compares raw mean differences to standardized mean differences. Some limitations of standardization are noted, and statistical techniques for raw meta-analysis are described. These include a graphical device for(More)
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