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Since corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was first characterized, a growing family of ligands and receptors has evolved. The mammalian family members include CRF, urocortinI (UcnI), UcnII, and UcnIII, along with two receptors, CRFR1 and CRFR2, and a CRF binding protein. These family members differ in their tissue distribution and pharmacology. Studies(More)
Here we describe the cloning and initial characterization of a previously unidentified CRF-related neuropeptide, urocortin II (Ucn II). Searches of the public human genome database identified a region with significant sequence homology to the CRF neuropeptide family. By using homologous primers deduced from the human sequence, a mouse cDNA was isolated from(More)
In addition to a nonadecapeptide homologous to the teleost melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), the amino acid sequence predicted from a rat prepro-MCH (ppMCH) cDNA suggested that at least one (neuropeptide EI, or NEI), and possibly a second (NGE), additional neuropeptide may be encoded by this precursor. Cross-reactivity with epitopes of NEI or NGE can(More)
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of neuropeptides includes the mammalian peptides CRF, urocortin, and urocortin II, as well as piscine urotensin I and frog sauvagine. The mammalian peptides signal through two G protein-coupled receptor types to modulate endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress, as well as a range of peripheral(More)
Two G protein-coupled receptors have been identified that bind corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urocortin (UCN) with high affinity. Hybridization histochemical methods were used to shed light on controversies concerning their localization in rat brain, and to provide normative distributional data in mouse, the standard model for genetic manipulation(More)
The distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-immunoreactive cells and fibers has been examined in the brains of normal adult rats, and in the brains of animals that had been pretreated with intraventricular injections of colchicine, or had been adrenalectomized 3-60 days before perfusion. The results suggest that CRF immunoreactivity is(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the principal neuroregulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and plays an important role in coordinating the endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress and immune challenge. We report here the cloning of a cDNA coding for a CRF receptor from a human corticotropic tumor library. The(More)
The interplay between bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists governs developmental and cellular processes as diverse as establishment of the embryonic dorsal-ventral axis, induction of neural tissue, formation of joints in the skeletal system and neurogenesis in the adult brain. So far, the three-dimensional structures of BMP antagonists(More)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh) is a critical coordinator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In response to stress, Crh released from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus activates Crh receptors on anterior pituitary corticotropes, resulting in release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth) into the bloodstream. Acth in(More)