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BACKGROUND Galantamine is a reversible, competitive cholinesterase inhibitor that also allosterically modulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These mechanisms of action provided the rationale for a therapeutic trial of galantamine in AD. METHODS A 6-month, multicenter, double-blind trial was undertaken in 636 patients with mild to moderate AD.(More)
BACKGROUND TDP-43 is a major component of the ubiquitinated inclusions that characterise amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitin inclusions (FTLD-U). TDP-43 is an RNA-binding and DNA-binding protein that has many functions and is encoded by the TAR DNA-binding protein gene (TARDBP) on chromosome 1. Our(More)
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that results in progressive decline in behavior, executive function and sometimes language. Disease mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently, however, the DNA- and RNA-binding protein TDP-43 has been identified as the major protein present in the hallmark inclusion bodies of(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with frontotemporal dementia due to mutation of progranulin may have a distinct phenotype. OBJECTIVE To identify distinct clinical and pathologic features of patients with frontotemporal dementia who have mutations of progranulin (GRN). DESIGN Retrospective clinical-pathologic study. SETTING Academic medical center. PATIENTS(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are an important cause of familial and nonfamilial parkinsonism. Despite pleomorphic pathology, LRRK2 mutations are believed to manifest clinically as typical Parkinson disease (PD). However, most genetic screens have been limited to PD clinic populations. OBJECTIVE To clinically characterize LRRK2 mutations in cases(More)
BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-Plus syndromes meet clinical criteria for ALS but also include 1 or more additional features such as dementia, geographic clustering, extrapyramidal signs, objective sensory loss, autonomic dysfunction, cerebellar degeneration, or ocular motility disturbance. METHODS We performed a whole-brain and spinal cord(More)
A nonsense/protein chain-terminating mutation in the CHMP2B gene has recently been reported as a cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in the single large family known to show linkage to chromosome 3. Screening for mutations in this gene in a large series of FTD families and individual patients led to the identification of a protein-truncating mutation in(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic influences on the development of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) are heterogeneous and ill defined. OBJECTIVE To determine the genetic risk factors for LOAD. DESIGN We asked the following questions: (1) Does early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) occur in families with predominantly LOAD? and (2) Does the apolipoprotein E (APOE)(More)
AIM Neuropathological examination of both individuals in a monozygotic (MZ) twin pair with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is rare, especially in the molecular genetic era. We had the opportunity to assess the concordance and discordance of clinical presentation and neuropathology in three MZ twin pairs with AD. METHODS The MZ twins were identified and(More)
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