Learn More
Using the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) lentivirus model system, we previously demonstrated protective effects of broadly neutralizing immune plasma in young horses (foals) with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, in vivo selection of a neutralization-resistant envelope variant occurred. Here, we determined the protective effects of(More)
Polymer nanoparticles of 40-400 nm diameter with spiropyran-merocyanine dyes incorporated into their hydrophobic cavities have been prepared; in contrast to their virtually nonfluorescent character in most environments, the merocyanine forms of the encapsulated dyes are highly fluorescent. Spiro-mero photoisomerization is reversible, allowing the(More)
Optical imaging in live cells has provided a wealth of information regarding the various biological mechanisms, including using genetically coded green-fluorescent protein-conjugated organic dye molecules and, more recently, highly luminescent quantum dots as optical tags for the target biomolecules. Cells are inherently complex, grow constantly and have(More)
This minireview highlights recent advances of research dedicated to photoswitchable fluorescent nanoparticles and their applications. Recently, several strategies have been developed to synthesize nanoparticles with optically switchable emission properties: either fluorescence on/off or dual-alternating-color fluorescence photoswitching. The underlying(More)
Fluorescence labeling of biomacromolecules and cells has become one of the major tools to study structural organization and intraand intermolecular processes within biological systems.1 Indeed, both highly fluorescent dyes and semiconductive quantum dots (QDs) are widely employed as fluorescent tags.2 Dual-color fluorescent tags, especially those that can(More)
Two variants of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) that differed in sensitivity to broadly neutralizing antibody were tested in direct competition assays. No differences were observed in the growth curves and relative fitness scores of EIAVs of principal neutralizing domain variants of groups 1 (EIAV(PND-1)) and 5 (EIAV(PND-5)), respectively; however,(More)
We have developed a class of spiropyran dyes and their fluorescence colors can be reversibly photoswitched from red to green, blue, or nearly dark, thus alternating between two colors. Such individual dyes emit either one color or the other but not both simultaneously. Nanoparticles enabled with these photoswitchable dyes, however, emit either one pure(More)
Beyond-diffraction-limit optical imaging of cells will reveal biological mechanisms, cellular structures, and physiological processes in nanometer scale. Harnessing the photoswitching properties of spiropyran fluorophores, we achieved nanoresolution fluorescence imaging using photoactuated unimolecular logical switching attained reconstruction (PULSAR)(More)
Precisely identifying biological targets and accurately extracting their relatively weak signals from complicated physiological environments represent daunting challenges in biological detection and biomedical diagnosis. Fluorescence techniques have become the method of choice and offer minimally invasive and ultrasensitive detections, thus, providing a(More)
Although H5N1 avian influenza has not yet acquired the capacity to readily infect humans, should it do so, this viral pathogen would present an increasing threat to the immunologically naïve human population. Subunit vaccines based on the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) can provide protective immunity against influenza. Polyanhydride nanoparticles(More)