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Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling functions as a suppressor or a promoter in tumor development, depending on the tumor stage and type. However, the role of TGF-β signaling in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) has not been explored. TGF-β1, Smad2, phospho-Smad2 (p-Smad2), Smad3, phospho-Smad3 (p-Smad3), Smad4, and Smad7 were detected in(More)
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