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In order to improve the load characteristics of stepper motor, give full play to the potential performance of a stepper motor, achieve higher performance, a constant frequency pulse-width modulation sub-drive has been developed. Application of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) devices for the stepper motor micro-step control, FET(field effect transistor)(More)
For decades, scholars have been trying to determine whether small or large groups are more likely to cooperate for collective action and successfully manage common-pool resources. Using data gathered from the Wolong Nature Reserve since 1995, we examined the effects of group size (i.e., number of households monitoring a single forest parcel) on both(More)
649 POLICYFORUM A water crisis has prompted the Chi-nese government to develop an ambitious water conservancy plan. However , the plan may not achieve water sustainability and may cause unintended environmental and socioeconomic consequences, unless it accounts for complex human-nature interactions (1). Water shortages, for example , force people to fi nd(More)
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) estimated that two thirds of ecosystem services on the earth have degraded or are in decline due to the unprecedented scale of human activities during recent decades. These changes will have tremendous consequences for human well-being, and offer both risks and opportunities for a wide range of stakeholders. Yet(More)
Systematic evaluation of the environmental and socioeconomic effects of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) programs is crucial for guiding policy design and implementation. We evaluated the performance of the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP), a national PES program of China, in the Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas. The environmental(More)
Ecosystems provide crucial services such as clean water to humans. Numerous payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs have been implemented around the world. However , their socioeconomic and environmental consequences are rarely quantified simultaneously. In PNAS, Zheng et al. (1) present an insightful empirical analysis of socioeconomic and(More)
Since the nodes of wireless sensor networks are in the condition of a highly-limited and unreplenishable energy resource such as battery power, computation, and storage space, the energy efficiency is the most important key- point of the network routing designing. In this paper, A novel routing algorithm which combines with hierarchical routing and(More)
Understanding the linkages between ecosystem services (ES) and human well-being (HWB) is crucial to sustain the flow of ES for HWB. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) provided a state-of-the-art synthesis of such knowledge. However, due to the complexity of the linkages between ES and HWB, there are still many knowledge gaps, and in particular a lack(More)