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— Scatterometer instruments are active microwave sensors that transmit a series of microwave pulses and measure the returned echo power to determine the normalized radar backscattering cross section (sigma-0) of the ocean surface from which the speed and direction of near-surface ocean winds are derived. The NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) was launched on board(More)
—The QuikSCAT radar measurements of several tropical cyclones in 1999 have been studied to develop the geophysical model function (GMF) of Ku-band radar 0 s for extreme high wind conditions. To account for the effects of precipitation, we analyze the co-located rain rates from the Special Sensor Mi-crowave/Imager (SSM/I) and propose the rain rate as a(More)
—Conically scanning pencil-beam scatterometer systems, such as the recently launched SeaWinds radar, constitute an important class of instruments for spaceborne climate observation. In addition to ocean winds, scatterometer data are being applied to a wide range of land and cryospheric applications. A key issue for future scatterometer missions is improved(More)
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