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During rat cortical development, when neurons migrate from the ventricular zone to the cortical plate, GABA localizes within the target destinations of migratory neurons. At this time, cells in germinal zones and along migratory pathways express GABA receptor subunit transcripts, implying that in vivo, GABA may be a chemoattractant. We used an in vitro(More)
Trivalent arsenic (arsenite, As3+) is a human carcinogen, which is associated with cancers of skin, lung, liver, and bladder. However, the mechanism by which arsenite causes cancer is not well understood. In this study, we found that exposure of Cl 41 cells, a well characterized mouse epidermal cell model for tumor promotion, to a low concentration of(More)
Relatively little is known about the development of GABAA receptor subunits and their gene expression in mammalian spinal cord. The expression of mRNAs encoding 13 GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1-6, beta 1-3, gamma 1-3, and delta) in embryonic, postnatal, and adult rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells were studied by in situ hybridization(More)
Retinoic acid is one of the most promising drugs for chemotherapy and chemoprevention of cancer. Either blocking activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity or activating retinoic acid response element (RARE) have been proposed to be responsible for its antitumor activity. However, evidence for this hypothesis is lacking in vivo studies. To address this issue, we(More)
Members of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) class of glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are critical for development, synaptic transmission, learning and memory; they are targets of pathological disorders in the central nervous system. NMDARs are phosphorylated by both serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases. Here, we demonstrate that cyclin dependent kinase-5(More)
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating survival signals in wide variety of neurons and cells. Recent studies show that Akt also regulates metabolic pathways to regulate cell survival. In this study, we reported that cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) regulates Akt activity and cell survival through(More)
Tolerance to opiates reduces their effectiveness in the treatment of severe pain. Although the mechanisms are unclear, overactivity of pro-nociceptive systems has been proposed to contribute to this phenomenon. We have reported that the development of morphine tolerance significantly increased calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-like immunoreactivity (CGRP-IR)(More)
GABA is formed primarily from decarboxylation of glutamate by a family of cytosolic and membrane-bound GAD enzymes. In the adult, GAD-derived GABA sustains the vitality of the central nervous system (CNS), since blockage of GAD rapidly leads to convulsions and death. In plants, cytosolic GAD synthesizes GABA in response to hormones and environmental stress.(More)
A methanol extract of the leaves of the plant Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) was evaluated for its effects on tumor initiation and promotion in mouse skin. Application of rosemary to mouse skin inhibited the covalent binding of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] to epidermal DNA and inhibited tumor initiation by B(a)P and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA).(More)
Arsenic has been used as an effective chemotherapy agent for some human cancers, such as acute promyelocytic leukemia. In this study, we found that arsenic induces activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs) at a similar dose range for induction of apoptosis in JB6 cells. In addition, we found that arsenic did not induce p53-dependent transactivation.(More)