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During rat cortical development, when neurons migrate from the ventricular zone to the cortical plate, GABA localizes within the target destinations of migratory neurons. At this time, cells in germinal zones and along migratory pathways express GABA receptor subunit transcripts, implying that in vivo, GABA may be a chemoattractant. We used an in vitro(More)
Members of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) class of glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are critical for development, synaptic transmission, learning and memory; they are targets of pathological disorders in the central nervous system. NMDARs are phosphorylated by both serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases. Here, we demonstrate that cyclin dependent kinase-5(More)
Increasing evidence has shown that some neurotransmitters act as growth-regulatory signals during brain development. Here we report a role for the classical neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) to stimulate proliferation of neural stem cells and stem cell-derived progenitor cells during neural cell lineage progression in vitro. Neuroepithelial cells in the(More)
GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid), a fast-acting synaptic transmitter in the mature CNS, is synthesized from glutamate by GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase). We have developed an ultrasensitive PCR technique to quantify the expression of GAD-related mRNAs during the development of the rat cervical spinal cord and have localized them using in situ(More)
Neurons produce complex patterns of electrical spikes, which are often clustered in bursts. The patterns of spikes and bursts can change substantially when neurons are exposed to toxins and chemical agents. For that reason, characterization of these patterns is important for the development of neuron-based biosensors for environmental threat exposure. Here,(More)
During development of the central nervous system (CNS) the gene that encodes the 67 kDa form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) undergoes alternative splicing. The alternatively spliced variants include an exon (referred to as ES, for embryonic stop) that contains a premature stop codon. The detection of mRNA containing the ES exon in embryonic rat brain(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) is a serine/threonine kinase activated by associating with its neuron-specific activators p35 and p39. Analysis of cdk5(-/-) and p35(-/-) mice has demonstrated that both cdk5 and p35 are essential for neuronal migration, axon pathfinding and the laminar configuration of the cerebral cortex, suggesting that the cdk5-p35(More)
GABA is formed primarily from decarboxylation of glutamate by a family of cytosolic and membrane-bound GAD enzymes. In the adult, GAD-derived GABA sustains the vitality of the central nervous system (CNS), since blockage of GAD rapidly leads to convulsions and death. In plants, cytosolic GAD synthesizes GABA in response to hormones and environmental stress.(More)
Relatively little is known about the development of GABAA receptor subunits and their gene expression in mammalian spinal cord. The expression of mRNAs encoding 13 GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1-6, beta 1-3, gamma 1-3, and delta) in embryonic, postnatal, and adult rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells were studied by in situ hybridization(More)
Sexual differences in the expression of messenger RNA and in the binding of serotonin receptors (subtypes 1A and 2A) were studied by in situ hybridization and autoradiography ¿[3H]8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin and [3H]ketanserin binding) in the rat brain. Serotonin-1A receptor messenger RNA showed distinct expression patterns for female and male(More)