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Presynaptic gamma-aminobutyrate-immunoreactive (GABA+) profiles were mapped in the cyprinid retina with overlay microscopy: a fusion of electron and optical imaging affording high-contrast ultrastructural and immunocytochemical visualization. GABA+ synapses, deriving primarily from amacrine cells (ACs), compose 92% of conventional synapses and 98% of the(More)
Postembedding silver-intensified immunogold procedures reveal high levels of glutamate immunoreactivity in "vertical" elements of the goldfish retina: (1) Red-sensitive and green-sensitive cones display strong glutamate immunoreactivity, especially in their synaptic terminals, but blue-sensitive cones are poorly immunoreactive. (2) All type Mb (on-center)(More)
The intrinsic cytoarchitecture and neurochemical organization of the nucleus locus coeruleus have been characterized extensively, but there is little information about the organization of locus coeruleus neuronal processes extending outside of the nucleus proper. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical techniques were used to investigate the(More)
Oblique thin sections of the goldfish inner plexiform layer (IPL) were examined to characterize the processes engaging in gap junctions. Omission of en bloc uranyl acetate staining enhanced the relative visibility of gap junctions, thus facilitating surveys. Three general categories were identified: (1) extensive gap junctions between large caliber amacrine(More)
Isolated human retinas were incubated in physiological saline containing micromolar (3H) glycine. The types, distributions, and synaptologies of glycine-accumulating neurons were determined by light and electron microscope autoradiography. Two types of amacrine cells were discriminated on the bases of number of processes descending into the inner plexiform(More)
Horizontal cells mediate lateral transmission of signals in the outer plexiform layer of the vertebrate retina, and are presumed to contribute to surround properties of photoreceptors and bipolar cells by chemical transmission. The cell bodies and dendrites of fish horizontal cells possess presynaptic specializations characteristic of conventional chemical(More)
The intrabulbar associational system (IAS) originates from tufted cells whose axons terminate in the internal plexiform layer (IPL) on the opposite side of the same olfactory bulb. The postsynaptic targets of the IAS are unknown. Subpopulations of tufted cells contain different neuropeptides and transmitters but it is not known if tufted cells forming the(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF), a classic neurotrophic factor, promotes neuronal survival, maintenance, regeneration and differentiation in the peripheral nervous system and parts of the central nervous system. NGF activity is mediated by cell surface bound receptors including the low affinity NGF receptor (LNGFr) which is expressed by some peripheral and(More)
The medial preoptic area (MPO), a sexually dimorphic region, plays a pivotal role in neuroendocrine function and reproductive behavior. We recently reported that MPO projects heavily to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). We also noted that MPO projects to the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum. Here we identified the cells of origin of the MPO-->tegmental(More)
The patterns of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine distribution in the zebrafish retina were determined using immunocytochemical localization of antisera at the light-microscope level. The observed GABA immunoreactivity (GABA-IR) patterns were further characterized using antibodies to both isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65(More)