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Neuronal responses at early stages in visual cortical processing, including those in primary visual cortex (V1), are subject to the influences of visual context, experience and attention. Here we show that for monkeys trained in a shape discrimination task, V1 neurons took on novel functional properties related to the attributes of the trained shapes.(More)
A high-density molecular marker linkage map of cotton based entirely on polymerase chain reaction-based markers is useful for a marker-assisted breeding program. Four kinds of markers—simple sequence repeats (SSRs), sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified(More)
The strong conical hull intersection property and bounded linear regularity are properties of a collection of finitely many closed convex intersecting sets in Euclidean space. These fundamental notions occur in various branches of convex optimization (constrained approximation, convex feasibility problems, linear inequalities, for instance). It is shown(More)
Our visual system can link components of contours and segregate contours from complex backgrounds based on geometric grouping rules. This is an important intermediate step in object recognition. The substrate for contour integration may be based on contextual interactions and intrinsic horizontal connections seen in primary visual cortex (V1). We examined(More)
While recent studies of synaptic stability in adult cerebral cortex have focused on dendrites, how much axons change is unknown. We have used advances in axon labeling by viruses and in vivo two-photon microscopy to investigate axon branching and bouton dynamics in primary visual cortex (V1) of adult Macaque monkeys. A nonreplicative adeno-associated virus(More)
In complex visual scenes, linking related contour elements is important for object recognition. This process, thought to be stimulus driven and hard wired, has substrates in primary visual cortex (V1). Here, however, we find contour integration in V1 to depend strongly on perceptual learning and top-down influences that are specific to contour detection. In(More)
Re-entrant or feedback pathways between cortical areas carry rich and varied information about behavioural context, including attention, expectation, perceptual tasks, working memory and motor commands. Neurons receiving such inputs effectively function as adaptive processors that are able to assume different functional states according to the task being(More)
The visual cortex has the capacity for experience-dependent change, or cortical plasticity, that is retained throughout life. Plasticity is invoked for encoding information during perceptual learning, by internally representing the regularities of the visual environment, which is useful for facilitating intermediate-level vision--contour integration and(More)
The visual cortex retains the capacity for experience-dependent changes, or plasticity, of cortical function and cortical circuitry, throughout life. These changes constitute the mechanism of perceptual learning in normal visual experience and in recovery of function after CNS damage. Such plasticity can be seen at multiple stages in the visual pathway,(More)