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The response properties of neurons in primary sensory cortices remain malleable throughout life. The existence of such plasticity, and the characteristics of a form of implicit learning known as perceptual learning, suggest that changes in primary sensory cortex may mediate learning. We explored whether modification of the functional properties of primary(More)
While recent studies of synaptic stability in adult cerebral cortex have focused on dendrites, how much axons change is unknown. We have used advances in axon labeling by viruses and in vivo two-photon microscopy to investigate axon branching and bouton dynamics in primary visual cortex (V1) of adult Macaque monkeys. A nonreplicative adeno-associated virus(More)
The strong conical hull intersection property and bounded linear regularity are properties of a collection of nitely many closed convex intersecting sets in Euclidean space. These fundamental notions occur in various branches of convex optimization (constrained approximation, convex feasibility problems, linear inequalities, for instance). It is shown that(More)
The traditional view on visual processing emphasizes a hierarchy: local line segments are first linked into global contours, which in turn are assembled into more complex forms. Distinct from this bottom-up viewpoint, here we provide evidence for a theoretical framework whereby objects and their parts are processed almost concurrently in a bidirectional(More)
Re-entrant or feedback pathways between cortical areas carry rich and varied information about behavioural context, including attention, expectation, perceptual tasks, working memory and motor commands. Neurons receiving such inputs effectively function as adaptive processors that are able to assume different functional states according to the task being(More)
The visual cortex has the capacity for experience-dependent change, or cortical plasticity, that is retained throughout life. Plasticity is invoked for encoding information during perceptual learning, by internally representing the regularities of the visual environment, which is useful for facilitating intermediate-level vision--contour integration and(More)