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— This paper presents the design of an optimal Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for a hybrid vehicle that starts with a cold powertrain. The cold start negatively affects the combustion and transmission efficiency of the powertrain, caused by the higher frictional losses due to increased hy-drodynamic viscosity effects. The excess fuel consumption of the(More)
The purpose of this paper is to assist those who might be confronted by non-normal and non-homoscedastic error distributions representable by continuous probability density functions. Methods are presented to demonstrate how mathematical algorithms can be developed to obtain a "best fit" calibration line and how uncertainty ranges in interpretations of(More)
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