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Adaptation in signaling systems, during which the output returns to a fixed baseline after a change in the input, often involves negative feedback loops and plays a crucial role in eukaryotic chemotaxis. We determined the dynamical response to a uniform change in chemoattractant concentration of a eukaryotic chemotaxis pathway immediately downstream from G(More)
We present a novel algorithm for modeling electrical wave propagation in anatomical models of the heart. The algorithm uses a phase-field approach that represents the boundaries between the heart muscle and the surrounding medium as a spatially diffuse interface of finite thickness. The chief advantage of this method is to automatically handle the boundary(More)
We present results of experiments on the dynamics of Dictyostelium discoideum in a novel setup which constrains cell motion to a plane. After aggregation, the amoebae collect into round " pancake " structures in which the cells rotate around the center of the pancake. This vortex state persists for many hours and we have explicitly verified that the motion(More)
Cell migration is a pervasive process in many biology systems and involves protrusive forces generated by actin polymerization, myosin dependent contractile forces, and force transmission between the cell and the substrate through adhesion sites. Here we develop a computational model for cell motion that uses the phase-field method to solve for the moving(More)
Many eukaryotic cells are able to crawl on surfaces and guide their motility based on environmental cues. These cues are interpreted by signaling systems which couple to cell mechanics; indeed membrane protrusions in crawling cells are often accompanied by activated membrane patches, which are localized areas of increased concentration of one or more(More)
OBJECTIVES We hypothesized that human atrial fibrillation (AF) may be sustained by localized sources (electrical rotors and focal impulses), whose elimination (focal impulse and rotor modulation [FIRM]) may improve outcome from AF ablation. BACKGROUND Catheter ablation for AF is a promising therapy, whose success is limited in part by uncertainty in the(More)
OBJECTIVES The authors sought to study mechanisms to explain why single premature atrial complexes (PACs) from the pulmonary veins (PVs) may initiate human atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND Theoretically, single PACs may initiate AF if the rate response of action potential duration (APD) restitution has a slope >1. However, human left atrial APD(More)
Electrical waves circulating around an obstacle in cardiac tissue are subject to a generic oscillatory instability. In a one-dimensional ring geometry this instability can produce both quasiperiodic and spatiotemporally chaotic oscillations while in a two-dimensional sheet of cardiac tissue it can lead to spiral wave breakup. We present a control scheme to(More)
Many eukaryotic cells, including Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae, fibroblasts, and neutrophils, are able to respond to chemoattractant gradients with high sensitivity. Recent studies have demonstrated that, after the introduction of a chemoattractant gradient, several chemotaxis pathway components exhibit a subcellular reorganization that cannot be(More)
The role of cardiac tissue anisotropy in the breakup of vortex filaments is studied using two detailed cardiac models. In the Beeler–Reuter model, modified to produce stable spiral waves in two dimensions, we find that anisotropy can destabilize a vortex filament in a parallelepipedal slab of tissue. The mechanisms of the instability are similar to the ones(More)