Wouter J. de Jonge

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The physiological regulation of the immune system encompasses comprehensive anti-inflammatory mechanisms that can be harnessed for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory disorders. Recent studies indicate that the vagal nerve, involved in control of heart rate, hormone secretion and gastrointestinal motility, is also an immunomodulator. In(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Postoperative ileus is characterized by delayed gastrointestinal (GI) transit and is a major determinant of recovery after colorectal surgery. Both laparoscopic surgery and fast-track multimodal perioperative care have been reported to improve clinical recovery. However, objective measures supporting faster GI recovery are lacking.(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS We previously showed that intestinal inflammation is reduced by electrical stimulation of the efferent vagus nerve, which prevents postoperative ileus in mice. We propose that this cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is mediated via alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on macrophages. The aim of this study was to evaluate(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve reduces intestinal inflammation following mechanical handling, thereby shortening post-operative ileus in mice. Previous studies in a sepsis model showed that this cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can be activated pharmacologically by central administration of semapimod, an inhibitor of(More)
The role of STAT3 in infectious diseases remains undetermined, in part because unphosphorylated STAT3 has been considered an inactive protein. Here, we report that unphosphorylated STAT3 contributes to cholinergic anti-inflammation, prevents systemic inflammation, and improves survival in sepsis. Bacterial endotoxin induced STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The vagus nerve negatively regulates macrophage cytokine production via the release of acetylcholine (ACh) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In various models of intestinal inflammation, vagus nerve efferent stimulation ameliorates disease. Given the actively constrained cytokine responses of intestinal(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) is expressed by the differentiated epithelial cells of the small intestine and signals to the mesenchyme where it induces unidentified factors that negatively regulate intestinal epithelial precursor cell fate. Recently, genetic variants in the Hh pathway have been linked to the development of inflammatory bowel(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) have been shown to be involved in nitrergic neurotransmission of the lower oesophageal sphincter and pylorus. Here we studied the role of ICC and nitric oxide (NO) in the inhibitory neurotransmission of the murine internal anal sphincter (IAS). METHODS The rectoanal inhibitory reflex, rectal(More)
Increased nitric oxide (NO) production is the cause of hypotension and shock during sepsis. In the present experiments, we have measured the contribution of endothelial (e) and inducible (i) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to systemic NO production in mice under baseline conditions and upon LPS treatment (100 microg/10 g ip LPS). NO synthesis was measured by(More)