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Phylogenetic analysis was conducted on 9 kDa non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) genes from nine plant species. Each of the five classified types in angiosperms exhibited eight conserved cysteine patterns. The most abundant nsLTP genes fell into the type I category, which was particularly enriched in a grass-specific lineage of clade I.1. Six pairs(More)
The division of labour is a central feature of the most sophisticated biological systems, including genomes, multicellular organisms and societies, which took millions of years to evolve. Here we show that a well-organized and robust division of labour can evolve in a matter of days. Mutants emerge within bacterial colonies and work with the parent strain(More)
Bacteria form dense surface-associated communities known as biofilms that are central to their persistence and how they affect us. Biofilm formation is commonly viewed as a cooperative enterprise, where strains and species work together for a common goal. Here we explore an alternative model: biofilm formation is a response to ecological competition. We(More)
Genome sequences are annotated by computational prediction of coding sequences, followed by similarity searches such as BLAST, which provide a layer of possible functional information. While the existence of processes such as alternative splicing complicates matters for eukaryote genomes, the view of bacterial genomes as a linear series of closely spaced(More)
In this study, we carried out an evolutionary, transcriptional, and functional analyses of the trihelix transcription factor family. A total of 319 trihelix members, identified from 11 land plant species, were classified into five clades. The results of phylogeny indicate the binding domains of GT1 and GT2 diverged early in the existence of land plants.(More)
The effect of 100 μM cobalt (Co) on plant growth and on biochemical parameters indicative of oxidative stress was investigated in a hydroponic experiment. The responses of antioxidant enzymes and compounds of the ascorbate–glutathione (AsA–GSH) cycle were also assessed on the hyperaccumulating plant, Indian mustard (Brasssica juncea L.). The effect of(More)
Recent reports suggest that the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) poly-C tract (16184–16193 polycytosine tract) variant and its relevant haplogroup lineages could be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, subsequent surveys of this relationship have yielded conflicting results, some finding significant associations and others reporting no(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations could contribute to aerobic performance, since they provide information to generate aerobic ATP energy by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in their respiratory chain. Owing to haploid and absence of recombination, specific mutations in the mtDNA genome associated with human exercise tolerance or intolerance arise and(More)
We propose an efficient and physics-inspired method for producing water spray effects by modeling air particles within a narrowband of the water surface in particle-based water simulation. In the real world, water and air continuously interact with each other around free surfaces, and this phenomenon is commonly observed in waterfalls or in rough sea waves.(More)
Remarkable increases in the performance of complex systems can be achieved by a collective approach to optimizing individual factors that influence performance. This approach, termed the aggregation of marginal gains, is tested here as a means of improving the performance of exterior clear-coatings. We focused on five factors that influence clear-coating(More)