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The phosphorylation of histone variant H2AX at DNA double-strand breaks is believed to be critical for recognition and repair of DNA damage. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism regulating the exchange of variant H2AX with conventional H2A in the context of the nucleosome. Here, we isolate the H2AX-associated factors, which include FACT(More)
Methylation of histone tails plays an important role in chromatin structure and function. Previously, we reported that ESET/SETDB1 is a histone methyltransferase (HMTase). Here, we show that SETDB1 tightly associates with the human homolog of mAM, a murine ATFa-associated factor. Although recombinant ESET can methylate lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3-K9), its(More)
Transcriptional coactivators that modify histones represent an increasingly important group of regulatory factors, although their ability to modify other factors as well precludes common assumptions that they necessarily act by histone modification. In an extension of previous studies showing a role for acetyltransferase p300/CBP in p53 function, we have(More)
Liver-specific and nonliver-specific methionine adenosyltransferases (MATs) are products of two genes, MAT1A and MAT2A, respectively, that catalyze the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), the principal biological methyl donor. Mature liver expresses MAT1A, whereas MAT2A is expressed in extrahepatic tissues and is induced during liver growth and(More)
DNA-bound transcription factors recruit many coactivator proteins to remodel chromatin and activate transcription. The Mediator complex is believed to recruit RNA polymerase II to most protein-encoding genes. It is generally assumed that interaction of Mediator subunits with DNA-binding transcription factors is responsible for Mediator recruitment to(More)
The doublesex gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes the alternatively spliced, sex-specific transcription factors DSXM and DSXF. These factors regulate male- and female-specific transcription of many genes. For example, female-specific transcription of the yolk protein 1 gene is regulated by DSXM repression in males and DSXF activation in females. In this(More)
The transcriptional coactivator p300 is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) whose function is critical for regulating gene expression in mammalian cells. However, the molecular events that regulate p300 HAT activity are poorly understood. We evaluated autoacetylation of the p300 HAT protein domain to determine its function. Using expressed protein ligation,(More)
We have investigated the integration of sex- and tissue-specific transcriptional regulation in Drosophila. A single copy of the o-r enhancer from yolk protein genes directs female- and fat body-specific transcription. It consists of four protein-binding sites: dsxA, which binds male (DSXM) and female (DSXF) proteins encoded by the doublesex gene; aef1,(More)
Epigenetic mechanisms underlying somatic reprogramming have been extensively studied, but little is known about the nuclear architecture of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Using circular chromosome conformation capture with high-throughput sequencing (4C-seq) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we identified chromosomal regions that colocalize(More)
Liver methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) plays a critical role in the metabolism of methionine converting this amino acid, in the presence of ATP, into S-adenosylmethionine. Here we report that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), via generation of hydroxyl radical, inactivates liver MAT by reversibly and covalently oxidizing an enzyme site. In vitro studies using(More)