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We examined the effects of Valsalva's manoeuvre and its four phase on heart rate, central venous pressure (CVP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and laser Doppler cerebellar cortical blood flow (CBF). Brief Valsalva manoeuvres increased CVP and markedly decreased MAP. Cerebral perfusion pressure significantly (P < or = 0.01,(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which organic calcium channel blockers inhibit cerebral vasoconstriction. Isolated bovine middle cerebral arteries were cut into rings to measure contractility or into strips to measure radioactive calcium (45Ca) influx and efflux. Calcium channel blockers (10(-5) M verapamil or 3.3 X 10(-7) M(More)
Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring is used to prevent nerve damage in spine surgery and to detect changes in upper extremity nerve function. Upper extremity SSEP conduction changes may indicate impending nerve injury. We investigated the effect of operative positioning on upper extremity nerve function retrospectively in 1000 consecutive spine(More)
Arterial vasospasm is a common problem in microsurgery. This pharmacological study compares seven vasodilators-lidocaine, papaverine, nicardipine, verapamil, diltiazem, sodium nitroprusside, and hydralazine-for their efficacy and potency in an experimental model of vasospasm. Porcine gastroepiploic arteries were cut into rings to measure isometric tension(More)
This in vitro study was performed to determine the role of calcium in ketamine-induced cerebral vasodilation. Isolated bovine middle cerebral arteries were cut into rings to measure isometric tension development or into strips to measure radioactive 45Calcium (45Ca) uptake. Ketamine produced direct relaxation of arterial rings; the relaxation was attenuated(More)
This pharmacologic study examines the direct cerebrovascular effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonists and antagonists to determine whether large cerebral arteries have NMDA receptors. Bovine middle cerebral arteries were cut into rings to measure isometric tension development in vitro. Two competitive agonists, L-glutamate and NMDA, each had(More)
Verapamil and pentobarbital were compared for their actions on isolated canine cerebral (basilar and middle cerebral) and peripheral (mesenteric) arteries of similar diameter. The two agents shared several nonselective actions on canine arteries, but differed widely in potency. Both agents produced direct relaxation of cerebral, but not peripheral,(More)
Methylmethacrylate bone cement is associated with severe hypotensive reactions during surgery and anesthesia. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine if methylmethacrylate monomer could produce hypotension by acting directly on vascular smooth muscle. Segments of human saphenous vein or rabbit thoracic aorta were cut into rings. The rings were(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel steroid, fluasterone (DHEF, a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analog), at improving functional recovery in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The lateral cortical impact model was utilized in two studies of efficacy and therapeutic window. DHEF was given (25 mg/kg,(More)
We determined sources of activator calcium for prostanoid-induced cerebrovascular constriction by measuring isometric tension and calcium-45 (45Ca) fluxes in bovine middle cerebral arteries. Constriction induced by prostaglandin F2 alpha or the stable thromboxane A2 analogue SQ-26,655 was near-maximally inhibited in calcium-deficient solutions but only(More)