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Biofilm in drinking water systems is undesirable. Free chlorine and monochloramine are commonly used as secondary drinking water disinfectants, but monochloramine is perceived to penetrate biofilm better than free chlorine. However, this hypothesis remains unconfirmed by direct biofilm monochloramine measurement. This study compared free chlorine and(More)
The efficiency of monochloramine disinfection was dependent on the quantity and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofilms, as monochloramine has a selective reactivity with proteins over polysaccharides. Biofilms with protein-based (Pseudomonas putida) and polysaccharide based EPS (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as biofilms with(More)
Chloramine has replaced free chorine for secondary disinfection at many water utilities because of disinfection by-product (DBP) regulations. Because chloramination provides a source of ammonia, there is a potential for nitrification when using chloramines. Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is undesirable and may result in degradation of(More)
Algal growth potential (AGP) of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa, NIES-298) using reclaimed water from various wastewater reclamation pilot plants was investigated to evaluate the feasibility of the reclaimed water usage for recreational purposes. After completing the coagulation and ultrafiltration processes, the concentrations of(More)
The in situ monitoring of phosphate has been of great importance in many environmental applications, particularly those involving biological treatment processes and eutrophication monitoring. A microelectrode with small tip size (~10 mum) was fabricated with cobalt wire, characterized and evaluated for in situ and in vivo environmental analysis of phosphate(More)
A graphene-based nanosensor was developed for in situ monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous solutions. The sensor was fabricated using photolithography and etching of Au/Ti film on a silicon wafer followed by the transfer of a single graphene layer which was prepared separately by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The performance(More)
The determination of phosphate has been of great importance in the fields of clinical, environmental, and horticultural analysis for over three decades. New cobalt-based micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) microelectrode array (MEA) sensors for direct measurement of phosphate in small environmental samples, such as microbial aggregates, has been(More)
As the demand for reliable and safe water supplies increases, both water quality and available quantity are being challenged by population growth and climate change. Greywater reuse is becoming a common practice worldwide; however, in remote locations of limited water supply, such as those encountered in military installations, it is desirable to expand its(More)