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Each step of the kinesin motor involves a force-generating molecular rearrangement. Although significant progress has been made in elucidating the broad features of the kinesin mechanochemical cycle, molecular details of the force generation mechanism remain a mystery. Recent molecular dynamics simulations have suggested a mechanism in which the forward(More)
Proteins that recognize and act on specific subsets of microtubules (MTs) enable the varied functions of the MT cytoskeleton. We recently discovered that Kif15 localizes exclusively to kinetochore fibers (K-fibers) or bundles of kinetochore-MTs within the mitotic spindle. It is currently speculated that the MT-associated protein TPX2 loads Kif15 onto(More)
In kinesin motors, a fundamental question concerns the mechanism by which ATP binding generates the force required for walking. Analysis of available structures combined with molecular dynamics simulations demonstrates that the conformational change of the neck linker involves the nine-residue-long N-terminal region, the cover strand, as an element that is(More)
Translocating motors generate force and move along a biofilament track to achieve diverse functions including gene transcription, translation, intracellular cargo transport, protein degradation, and muscle contraction. Advances in single molecule manipulation experiments, structural biology, and computational analysis are making it possible to consider(More)
Several self-assembling peptide and protein systems that form nanotubes, helical ribbons and fibrous scaffolds have recently emerged as biological materials. Peptides and proteins have also been selected to bind metals, semiconductors and ions, inspiring the design of new materials for a wide range of applications in nano-biotechnology.
The AAA+ (ATPase Associated with various cellular Activities) machinery represents an extremely successful and widely used design plan for biological motors. Recently found crystal structures are beginning to reveal nucleotide-dependent conformational changes in the canonical hexameric rings of the AAA+ motors. However, the physical mechanism by which ATP(More)
Recent advances have led to the emergence of molecular biomechanics as an essential element of modern biology. These efforts focus on theoretical and experimental studies of the mechanics of proteins and nucleic acids, and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress transmission, mechanosensing and mechanotransduction in living cells. In(More)
Mechanical force plays an important role in the physiology of eukaryotic cells whose dominant structural constituent is the actin cytoskeleton composed mainly of actin and actin crosslinking proteins (ACPs). Thus, knowledge of rheological properties of actin networks is crucial for understanding the mechanics and processes of cells. We used Brownian(More)
At the core of amyloid fibrils is the cross-beta spine, a long tape of beta-sheets formed by the constituent proteins. Recent high-resolution x-ray studies show that the unit of this filamentous structure is a beta-sheet bilayer with side chains within the bilayer forming a tightly interdigitating "steric zipper" interface. However, for a given peptide,(More)
We develop a computational model to compare the relative importance of unbinding and unfolding of actin cross-linking proteins (ACPs) in the dynamic properties of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that in the strain-stiffening regime with typical physiological and experimental strain rates, unbinding events are predominant with negligible unfolding. ACPs(More)