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Focused ultrasound (FUS) has recently been investigated as a new mode of non-invasive brain stimulation, which offers exquisite spatial resolution and depth control. We report on the elicitation of explicit somatosensory sensations as well as accompanying evoked electroencephalographic (EEG) potentials induced by FUS stimulation of the human somatosensory(More)
We present a method to create multi-layered engineered tissue composites consisting of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes which mimic skin layers. Three-dimensional (3D) freeform fabrication (FF) technique, based on direct cell dispensing, was implemented using a robotic platform that prints collagen hydrogel precursor, fibroblasts and keratinocytes.(More)
One of the challenges in tissue engineering is to provide adequate supplies of oxygen and nutrients to cells within the engineered tissue construct. Soft-lithographic techniques have allowed the generation of hydrogel scaffolds containing a network of fluidic channels, but at the cost of complicated and often time-consuming manufacturing steps. We report a(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to investigate whether electroencephalograph (EEG) dynamics differ in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with healthy subjects during the performance of a cognitive task. METHODS We recorded EEGs from 19 scalp electrodes in 11 adolescent boys with ADHD and 12 age-matched healthy boys while the(More)
Time-released delivery of soluble growth factors (GFs) in engineered hydrogel tissue constructs promotes the migration and proliferation of embedded cells, which is an important factor for designing scaffolds that ultimately aim for neural tissue regeneration. We report a tissue engineering technique to print murine neural stem cells (C17.2), collagen(More)
We present a direct cell printing technique to pattern neural cells in a three-dimensional (3D) multilayered collagen gel. A layer of collagen precursor was printed to provide a scaffold for the cells, and the rat embryonic neurons and astrocytes were subsequently printed on the layer. A solution of sodium bicarbonate was applied to the cell containing(More)
We investigated the use of pulsed low-intensity focused ultrasound (FUS) to suppress the visual neural response induced by light stimulation in rodents. FUS was administered transcranially to the rat visual cortex using different acoustic intensities and pulsing duty cycles. The visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) generated by an external strobe light(More)
OBJECTIVE Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS), with its ability to non-invasively modulate the excitability of region-specific brain areas, is gaining attention as a potential neurotherapeutic modality. The aim of this study was to examine whether or not FUS administered to the brain could alter the extracellular levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric(More)
A microfluidic platform to satisfy both 3D cell culture and cell-based assay is required for credible assay results and improved assay concept in drug discovery. In this article, we demonstrate a microvalve-assisted patterning (MAP) platform to provide a new method for investigating cellular dynamics by generating a linear concentration gradient of a drug(More)
Non-invasive brain stimulation using focused ultrasound has largely been carried out in small animals. In the present study, we applied stimulatory focused ultrasound transcranially to the primary sensorimotor (SM1) and visual (V1) brain areas in sheep (Dorset, all female, n = 8), under the guidance of magnetic resonance imaging, and examined the(More)