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Noradrenaline (NA) is a major neurotransmitter that regulates many neuroendocrine and sympathetic autonomic functions of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Previously NA has been shown to increase the frequency of excitatory synaptic activity of parvocellular neurons within the PVN, but little is known about its effects on inhibitory synaptic(More)
Noradrenergic inputs to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) play important roles in the regulation of neuroendocrine and autonomic functions. Previous reports show that noradrenaline increases the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in a subpopulation of type II neurones, acting via alpha(1)-adrenoceptors (ARs), but(More)
Glutamate is known to increase neuronal excitability in the subfornical organ, a circumventricular organ devoid of the blood-brain barrier. To understand the synaptic mechanism of neuronal excitation by glutamate in this nucleus, we examined the effects of glutamate on GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents recorded from subfornical organ(More)
The subfornical organ (SFO) is one of circumventricular organs characterized by the lack of a normal blood brain barrier. The SFO neurons are exposed to circulating glutamate (60~100 µM), which may cause excitotoxicity in the central nervous system. However, it remains unclear how SFO neurons are protected from excitotoxicity caused by circulating(More)
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