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Because the mucosal epithelia are in constant contact with large numbers of microorganisms, these surfaces must be armed with efficient microbial control systems. Here, we show that the Drosophila nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase enzyme, dual oxidase (dDuox), is indispensable for gut antimicrobial activities. Adult flies in which(More)
The Drosophila immune system discriminates between different classes of infectious microbes and responds with pathogen-specific defense reactions through selective activation of the Toll and the immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathways. The Toll pathway mediates most defenses against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, whereas the Imd pathway is required to(More)
Although commensalism with gut microbiota exists in all metazoans, the host factors that maintain this homeostatic relationship remain largely unknown. We show that the intestinal homeobox gene Caudal regulates the commensal-gut mutualism by repressing nuclear factor kappa B-dependent antimicrobial peptide genes. Inhibition of Caudal expression in flies via(More)
The symbiotic microbiota profoundly affect many aspects of host physiology; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying host-microbe cross-talk are largely unknown. Here, we show that the pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH) activity of a commensal bacterium, Acetobacter pomorum, modulates insulin/insulin-like growth factor(More)
A fundamental question that applies to all organisms is how barrier epithelia efficiently manage continuous contact with microorganisms. Here, we show that in Drosophila an extracellular immune-regulated catalase (IRC) mediates a key host defense system that is needed during host-microbe interaction in the gastrointestinal tract. Strikingly, adult flies(More)
All metazoan guts are subjected to immunologically unique conditions in which an efficient antimicrobial system operates to eliminate pathogens while tolerating symbiotic commensal microbiota. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling this process are only partially understood. Here, we show that bacterial-derived uracil acts as a ligand for dual(More)
All metazoan guts are in permanent contact with the microbial realm. However, understanding of the exact mechanisms by which the strength of gut immune responses is regulated to achieve gut-microbe mutualism is far from complete. Here we identify a signaling network composed of complex positive and negative mechanisms that controlled the expression and(More)
The Toll receptor was originally identified as an indispensable molecule for Drosophila embryonic development and subsequently as an essential component of innate immunity from insects to humans. Although in Drosophila the Easter protease processes the pro-Spätzle protein to generate the Toll ligand during development, the identification of the protease(More)
All metazoan guts are in constant contact with diverse food-borne microorganisms. The signaling mechanisms by which the host regulates gut-microbe interactions, however, are not yet clear. Here, we show that phospholipase C-beta (PLCbeta) signaling modulates dual oxidase (DUOX) activity to produce microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS) essential for(More)
Metazoan guts face a wide variety of microorganisms upon exposure to the environment, including beneficial symbionts, non-symbionts, food-borne microbes and life-threatening pathogens. Recent evidence has shown that the innate immunity of gut epithelia, such as anti-microbial peptide- and reactive oxygen species-based immune systems, actively participate in(More)