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The ability to mount protective immune responses depends on the diversity of T cells. T cell diversity may be compromised by the declining thymic output of new T cells. The aging process imposes a threat to diversity, because thymic function deteriorates. In this study we have examined the relationship between thymic production, homeostatic T cell(More)
The ability of the human immune system to respond to vaccination declines with age. We identified an age-associated defect in T cell receptor (TCR)-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in naive CD4(+) T cells, whereas other signals, such as ζ chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70) and phospholipase C-γ1 phosphorylation,(More)
Naïve and memory CD4 and CD8 T cells constitute a highly dynamic system with constant homeostatic and antigen-driven proliferation, influx, and loss of T cells. Thymic activity dwindles with age and essentially ceases in the later decades of life, severely constraining the generation of new T cells. Homeostatic control mechanisms are very effective at(More)
INTRODUCTION Interleukin (IL)-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced largely by a unique CD4(+) T-helper (Th) subset called Th17 cells. The development of Th17 cells is suppressed by interferon (IFN)-gamma produced by Th1 cells, suggesting cross-regulation between Th17 and Th1 cells. Thus, this study analyzed the balance of CD4+ Th17 and Th1 cell(More)
In humans, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) has been suggested as an essential cytokine for developing IL-17- or IL-17A-producing CD4(+) T helper 17 (Th17) cells. However, little is known about the relationship of IL-1 receptor expression and Th17 cell differentiation. We report here the presence of 2 distinct CD4(+) T-cell populations with and without(More)
Four-color flow cytometry was used with a cocktail of antibodies to identify and isolate CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors from normal human peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM). Mature cells that did not contain colony forming cells were resolved from immature cells using antibodies for T lymphocytes (CD3), B lymphocytes (CD20), monocytes (CD14), and(More)
Zinc is a trace element that is essential for innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition to being a structural element of many proteins, zinc also functions as a neurotransmitter and an intracellular messenger. Temporal or spatial changes in bioavailable zinc may influence the activity of several enzymes, including kinases and phosphatases. We(More)
FOXP3-positive regulatory T (Treg) cells are a unique subset of T cells with immune regulatory properties. Treg cells can be induced from non-Treg CD4(+) T cells (induced Treg [iTreg] cells) by TCR triggering, IL-2, and TGF-β or retinoic acid. 1,25-Dihyroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)VD(3)] affects the functions of immune cells including T cells.(More)
Secondary metabolites of tropical seaweed are proven to exhibit variety of biological activities. Six species of seaweed (Caulerpa racemosa var. laete-virens, Caulerpa sertularioides f. longipes, Halymenia dilatata, Laurencia snackeyi, Padina boryana, and Sargassum swartzii) were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated(More)
Fucoidan, extracted from Ecklonia cava, has been extensively studied because of its wide biological activities. However, antioxidative activities have not been yet examined. Therefore we evaluated in vitro and in vivo studies on antioxidative activities of E. cava fucoidan (ECF). ECF exhibited more prominent effects in peroxyl radical scavenging activity,(More)