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Screening of a library of chemical compounds showed that the dichloropyridine-based analogue 9 was a novel P2X(7) receptor antagonist. To optimize its activity, we assessed the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 9, focusing on the hydrazide linker, the dichloropyridine skeleton, and the hydrophobic acyl (R(2)) group. We found that the hydrazide(More)
Members of the catechol diether class are highly potent non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs). The most active compounds yield EC50 values below 0.5 nM in assays using human T-cells infected by wild-type HIV-1. However, these compounds such as rilpivirine, the most recently FDA-approved NNRTI, bear a cyanovinylphenyl (CVP) group.(More)
Peptidomimetic anti-viral agents against Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) were developed using a strategy involving the inhibition of 3C protease (CVB3 3C(pro)), a target for CVB3-mediated myocarditis or pericarditis. In an attempt to improve the inhibitory activity against CVB3, a variety of hetero-aromatic groups were incorporated into the α,β-unsaturated ester(More)
Non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-RT) are reported that incorporate a 7-indolizinylamino or 2-naphthylamino substituent on a pyrimidine or 1,3,5-triazine core. The most potent compounds show below 10 nanomolar activity towards wild-type HIV-1 and variants bearing Tyr181Cys and Lys103Asn/Tyr181Cys resistance mutations. The(More)
Catechol diethers that incorporate a 7-cyano-2-naphthyl substituent are reported as non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs). Many of the compounds have 1-10 nM potencies toward wild-type HIV-1. An interesting conformational effect allows two unique conformers for the naphthyl group in complexes with HIV-RT. X-ray crystal structures(More)
The pyridine core skeleton of the previously reported dichloropyridine-based potent hP2X7 receptor antagonist 5 (IC50 = 13 nM in hP2X7-expressing HEK293 cells) was modified with various heterocyclic scaffolds. Among the derivatives with quinoline, quinazoline, acridine, and purine scaffolds, the chloropurine-based analog 9o exhibited the most potent(More)
Catechol diethers that incorporate a 6-cyano-1-naphthyl substituent have been explored as non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs). Promising compounds are reported that show midpicomolar activity against the wild-type virus and sub-20 nM activity against viral variants bearing Tyr181Cys and Lys103Asn mutations in HIV-RT. An X-ray(More)
The clinical benefits of HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) are hindered by their unsatisfactory pharmacokinetic (PK) properties along with the rapid development of drug-resistant variants. However, the clinical efficacy of these inhibitors can be improved by developing compounds with enhanced pharmacological profiles and(More)
The HIV-1 pandemic affecting over 37 million people worldwide continues, with nearly one-half of the infected population on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Major therapeutic challenges remain because of the emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 strains, limitations because of safety and toxicity with current HIV-1 drugs, and patient compliance for(More)
Compounds having α,β-unsaturated lactones display a variety of biological activities. Many research groups have tested both natural and unnatural α,β-unsaturated lactones for as-yet undiscovered biological properties. We synthesized α,β-unsaturated lactones with various substituents at the δ-position and studied their immunosuppressive effects, that is, the(More)