Wolfram an der Heiden

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BACKGROUND Poorly defined cohorts and weak study designs have hampered cross-cultural comparisons of course and outcome in schizophrenia. AIMS To describe long-term outcome in 18 diverse treated incidence and prevalence cohorts. To compare mortality, 15- and 25-year illness trajectory and the predictive strength of selected baseline and short-term course(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate when social consequences in schizophrenia emerge, and what conditions give rise to the social disadvantage evident in people suffering from schizophrenia. METHOD Early course in schizophrenia was studied in a population-based sample of 232 first illness-episode cases retrospectively from onset to first(More)
Motivated by the lack of knowledge of the pathophysiological processes underlying the manifestation of symptoms in schizophrenia, we have worked out a systematic search strategy. Since epidemiological distribution patterns consistently deviating from expected values provide valuable indications of causal relationships, we chose the higher age of females at(More)
BACKGROUND We studied descriptive and causal associations between schizophrenia, depressive symptoms and episodes of depression. METHODS Untreated psychotic, depressive and negative symptoms were assessed retrospectively from onset until first admission using the IRAOS in a population-based sample of 232 first episodes of schizophrenia. A representative(More)
Onset and lifetime prevalence of substance abuse were assessed retrospectively using the IRAOS interview in a population-based, controlled sample of 232 first episodes of schizophrenia (ABC sample). Subjects with schizophrenia were twice as likely as controls to have a lifetime history of substance abuse at the age of first admission (alcohol abuse: 23.7(More)
The ABC (age, beginning, course) schizophrenia study was commenced in 1987 to generate and test hypotheses about pathogenic aspects of schizophrenia. One of the main branches of the study focused on how gender influences the age distribution of onset, symptomatology, illness behavior, and early course in schizophrenia. Proceeding from one of the rare,(More)
Using the Interview for the Retrospective Assessment of the Onset of Schizophrenia (IRAOS), we assessed 170 first illness episodes with a nonpsychotic prodromal stage (73% of the population-based Age, Beginning, Course [ABC] study sample of 232 first illness episodes of schizophrenia from a German population of about 1.5 million). Conrad's (1958) and(More)
Women fall ill with schizophrenia 3 to 4 years later than men. The neurobiological mechanism, explaining the delay of onset in women until menopause, is presumably due to a sensitivity reducing effect of oestrogen on central d(2) receptors, as we have previously shown in animal experiments and in a controlled clinical study. The gender difference in age at(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the epidemiology of schizophrenia. METHOD Narrative literature review. RESULTS Each year 1 in 10,000 adults (12 to 60 years of age) develops schizophrenia. Based on a restrictive and precise definition of the diagnosis and using standardized assessment methods and large, representative populations, the incidence rates appear(More)
For the investigation of the early course of schizophrenia starting from onset, the standardised Interview for the Retrospective Assessment of the Onset of Schizophrenia was developed and validated. In a representative sample of 267 first-admitted German schizophrenics of a broad diagnosis from a population of 1.5 million, the age at which different(More)