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The mitogenic actions of epidermal growth factor (EGF) were examined in low-density, dissociated cultures of embryonic day 14 mouse striatal primordia, under serum-free defined conditions. EGF induced the proliferation of single progenitor cells that began to divide between 5 and 7 d in vitro, and after 13 d in vitro had formed a cluster of undifferentiated(More)
Although it was once thought that the corticospinal (pyramidal) tract was the main substrate of voluntary movement, the extent to which it is involved in the control of proximal vs. distal musculature, independent finger movements, and movements characteristic of different species of animals now is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the(More)
Rubrospinal neurons (RSNs) undergo a marked atrophy in the second week after cervical axotomy. This delayed atrophy is accompanied by a decline in the expression of regeneration-associated genes such as GAP-43 and Talpha1-tubulin, which are initially elevated after injury. These responses may reflect a deficiency in the trophic support of axotomized RSNs.(More)
Microgliosis is a common response to multiple types of damage in the CNS. However, the origin of the cells involved in this process is still controversial and the relative importance of local expansion versus recruitment of microglia progenitors from the bloodstream is unclear. Here, we investigated the origin of microglia using chimeric animals obtained by(More)
Bridging of a lesion site and minimizing local damage to create an environment permissive for regeneration are both primary components of a successful strategy to repair spinal cord injury (SCI). Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are prime candidates for autologous transplantation to bridge this gap, but little is known currently about their mechanism of(More)
Olfactory bulb-derived (central) ensheathing cell (OB OEC) transplants have shown significant promise in rat models of spinal cord injury, prompting the use of lamina propria-derived (peripheral) olfactory ensheathing cells (LP OECs) in both experimental and clinical trials. Although derived from a common embryonic precursor, both sources of OECs reside in(More)
Scientific interest to find a treatment for spinal cord injuries has led to the development of numerous experimental strategies to promote axonal regeneration across the spinal cord injury site. Although these strategies have been developed in acute injury paradigms and hold promise for individuals with spinal cord injuries in the future, little is known(More)
Although regeneration of injured axons is inhibited within the adult CNS, moderate recovery can be found in patients and animals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). This can be partly attributed to sprouting of spared and injured axons, rostral and caudal to the lesion, respectively. Recently, it has been reported that following a thoracic SCI such(More)
Neurons projecting into the peripheral nervous system (PNS) regenerate their axons after injury, in contrast to those confined to the central nervous system (CNS). Both neuronal and nonneuronal factors contribute to the lack of CNS regeneration. In this review we concentrate on the differential gene expression response to axotomy in PNS vs. CNS neurons. In(More)
The corticospinal tract is widely used to study regeneration and is essential for voluntary movements in humans. In young rats, corticospinal axons on the uninjured side sprout and grow into the denervated side. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) induces such crossed collateral sprouting in adults. We investigated whether local intraspinal NT-3 infusions would promote(More)