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We measured the viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm of J774 macrophages with a recently developed microrheometer. Ferromagnetic beads (1.3 microm in diameter) were used to determine the local viscoelastic moduli. Step-force pulses were applied to the magnetic beads and the displacement was observed by single particle tracking. By analyzing the creep(More)
Interstitial N diffusion under low energy (approximately 700 eV) Ar+ bombardment at 673 K in ion beam nitrided austenitic stainless steel is investigated. Ar+ ion bombardment increases the N mobility in depths far beyond the ion penetration depth, resulting in an increased broadening of the N depth profile as a function of Ar+ flux. This effect cannot be(More)
The individual impacts of slow (300 eV/amu) highly charged Xe ions induce nanometer sized pitlike structures on the KBr (001) surface. The volume of these structures shows a strong dependence on the ions potential energy. Total potential sputter yields from atomically flat (001) terraces are determined by imaging single ion impact sites. The dependence of(More)
Upon impact on a solid surface, the potential energy stored in slow highly charged ions is primarily deposited into the electronic system of the target. By decelerating the projectile ions to kinetic energies as low as 150 x q eV, we find first unambiguous experimental evidence that potential energy alone is sufficient to cause permanent nanosized hillocks(More)
The dissipation of potential energy of multiply charged Ar ions incident on Cu has been studied by complementary electron spectroscopy and calorimetry at charge states between 2 and 10 and kinetic energies between 100 eV and 1 keV. The emitted and deposited fractions of potential energy increase at increasing charge state, showing a significant jump for(More)
The retained fraction of the potential energy of argon ions incident on copper has been measured using stationary calorimetry at charge states up to 9+ and kinetic energies ranging from 75 to 240 eV per ionic charge. An average fraction of 30% to 40% is found with little dependence on the charge number and on the kinetic energy. The retention of the total(More)
We present highly ordered Ag nanowire arrays with 35nm periodicity grown on patterned templates. The optical properties measured using generalized ellipsometry exhibit strong anisotropy. Dielectric functions are calculated by fitting the Jones matrix elements with a biaxial layer model, accounting for both metallic behavior and localized surface plasmon(More)
The morphology of different amorphous or amorphized SiO(2) surfaces, including thermally grown films, fused silica, and single crystalline quartz, during low energy ion sputtering has been investigated by means of atomic force microscopy. For all three materials, the formation of periodic ripple patterns oriented normal to the direction of the ion beam is(More)
The amorphized surface of Si(100) sputtered with low energy ions at moderate temperature was found to develop two perpendicular ripple patterns overlaying each other. The evolution of these patterns was studied over a wide range of fluence. Coarsening of both ripple modes was observed, showing a similar time dependence with a coarsening exponent of n(More)
Es wird eine miniaturisierte Meßsonde für die kontinuierliche Bestimmung des pH-Wertes im Gewebe (interstitielle Flüssigkeit) beschrieben. Die Elektrodenkonstruktion lehnt sich an das von Stamm u. Mitarb. beschriebene Konzept an. Die pH-empfindliche Spitze der Sonde ist 1 mm lang und besteht aus einem Li-Ba-Si-Glas von geringem spezifischem Widerstand. Die(More)