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As a final step in endocytosis, clathrin-coated pits must separate from the plasma membrane and move into the cytosol as a coated vesicle. Because these events involve minute movements that conventional light microscopy cannot resolve, they have not been observed directly and their dynamics remain unexplored. Here, we used evanescent field (EF) microscopy(More)
Voltage-clamp studies were carried out to compare currents through Ca2+ channels (ICa) with Na+ currents (Ins) through a non-selective cation conductance blocked by micromolar concentrations of external Ca2+. The gating of both currents was found to have similar time and voltage dependence. The amplitudes of ICa and Ins varied widely, but Ins was always(More)
Using flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ and the membrane capacitance to monitor exocytosis, we have studied the response of single melanotrophs to a step rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Exocytosis begins with a rapid burst. This burst is followed by a slower phase, which is inhibited at cytosolic pH 6.2, and an ultraslow phase, which is(More)
Membrane currents were recorded from voltage-clamped, EGTA-loaded muscle fibres under conditions where currents through ordinary Na+, K+ and Cl- channels were prevented by drugs or by absence of permeant ions (K+, and Cl-). At 10 mM-external [Ca2+], substitution of Na+ for the large and presumably impermeant organic cations tetramethyl- (TMA+) or(More)
To sustain high rates of transmitter release, synaptic terminals must rapidly re-supply vesicles to release sites and prime them for exocytosis. Here we describe imaging of single synaptic vesicles near the plasma membrane of live ribbon synaptic terminals. Vesicles were captured at small, discrete active zones near the terminal surface. An electric(More)
We have monitored cytosolic [Ca2+] with fura-2 and exocytosis by measuring the membrane capacitance, and we have studied the influence of cytosolic [Ca2+] on secretion in single endocrine cells. As in neurons, cytosolic Ca2+ is sufficient to trigger exocytosis. The rate of secretion grows with the fourth or fifth power of cytosolic [Ca2+], and paired(More)
Perhaps synaptic vesicles can recycle so rapidly because they avoid complete exocytosis, and release transmitter through a fusion pore that opens transiently. This view emerges from imaging whole terminals where the fluorescent lipid FM1-43 seems unable to leave vesicles during transmitter release. Here we imaged single, FM1-43-stained synaptic vesicles by(More)
The hypothesis that acetylcholine, substance P, and LHRH suppress M-current by activating phospholipase C was tested. Each agonist caused turnover of phosphoinositide, as measured by release of inositol phosphates, and a modest transient rise in intracellular free Ca2+ ([ Ca2+]i), as determined with fura-2. Active phorbol esters depressed M-current only 50%(More)
1. A vaseline-gap voltage-clamp technique was used to record slow Ca2+ and K+ currents from frog skeletal muscle fibres loaded with the Ca2+ chelator EGTA. 2. K+ currents were increased when Mg2+ replaced external Ca2+, and they were abolished when internal K+ was replaced by tetraethylammonium (TEA+). Ca2+ currents could be studied in isolation in fibres(More)