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Voltage-clamp studies were carried out to compare currents through Ca2+ channels (ICa) with Na+ currents (Ins) through a non-selective cation conductance blocked by micromolar concentrations of external Ca2+. The gating of both currents was found to have similar time and voltage dependence. The amplitudes of ICa and Ins varied widely, but Ins was always(More)
As a final step in endocytosis, clathrin-coated pits must separate from the plasma membrane and move into the cytosol as a coated vesicle. Because these events involve minute movements that conventional light microscopy cannot resolve, they have not been observed directly and their dynamics remain unexplored. Here, we used evanescent field (EF) microscopy(More)
Using flash photolysis of caged Ca2+ and the membrane capacitance to monitor exocytosis, we have studied the response of single melanotrophs to a step rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Exocytosis begins with a rapid burst. This burst is followed by a slower phase, which is inhibited at cytosolic pH 6.2, and an ultraslow phase, which is(More)
In mast cells and granulocytes, exocytosis starts with the formation of a fusion pore. It has been suggested that neurotransmitters may be released through such a narrow pore without full fusion. However, owing to the small size of the secretory vesicles containing neurotransmitter, the properties of the fusion pore formed during Ca2+-dependent exocytosis(More)
Membrane currents were recorded from voltage-clamped, EGTA-loaded muscle fibres under conditions where currents through ordinary Na+, K+ and Cl- channels were prevented by drugs or by absence of permeant ions (K+, and Cl-). At 10 mM-external [Ca2+], substitution of Na+ for the large and presumably impermeant organic cations tetramethyl- (TMA+) or(More)
To sustain high rates of transmitter release, synaptic terminals must rapidly re-supply vesicles to release sites and prime them for exocytosis. Here we describe imaging of single synaptic vesicles near the plasma membrane of live ribbon synaptic terminals. Vesicles were captured at small, discrete active zones near the terminal surface. An electric(More)
Perhaps synaptic vesicles can recycle so rapidly because they avoid complete exocytosis, and release transmitter through a fusion pore that opens transiently. This view emerges from imaging whole terminals where the fluorescent lipid FM1-43 seems unable to leave vesicles during transmitter release. Here we imaged single, FM1-43-stained synaptic vesicles by(More)
The permeability of Ca channels to various foreign cations has been investigated in the absence of external Ca2+. All physiological metal cations are clearly permeant, including Mg2+. The large organic cation n-butylamine+ is sparingly permeant or impermeant, but its larger derivative 1,4-diaminobutane2+ is highly permeant. Among the cations of the(More)
In neuroendocrine cells, cytosolic Ca2+ triggers exocytosis in tens of milliseconds, yet known pathways of endocytic membrane retrieval take minutes. To test for faster retrieval mechanisms, we have triggered short bursts of exocytosis by flash photolysis of caged Ca2+, and have tracked subsequent retrieval by measuring the plasma membrane capacitance. We(More)