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In a controlled cross-over design study performed with 14 female subjects, serum hormone levels, the EEG and a number of performance tests were recorded during spontaneous and oral contraceptive-controlled menstrual cycles. The mean alpha-frequency showed cyclic changes, i.e. slower alpha-waves during the follicular phase and faster alpha-waves during the(More)
Epidemiological studies demonstrate that affective disorders are at least twice as common in women as in men, but surprisingly, very few preclinical studies have been conducted on female experimental animals. Therefore, the necessity of developing valid animal models for studying the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders in women is obvious. Chronic(More)
Cholecystokinin (CCK) and substance P (SP) were measured in discrete areas of the rat brain at different stages of the estrous cycle. Significantly higher levels of CCK were found in the lateral septum during diestrus as compared to proestrus. In the parietal cortex, CCK concentrations were significantly higher in diestrus than in proestrus. In the(More)
A competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for quantitating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA level in a single micropunch of the rat preoptic area (POA) is described. The POA (600 microns in depth) was micropunched from frozen rat brain slices and used for mRNA isolation using Dynabeads-oligo(dT) magnetic separation technique. The target RNA(More)
In rats, beta-endorphin (beta-END) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) suppress LH secretion by hypothalamic mechanisms involving the preoptic area (POA). Systemic injection of naloxone (NAL) increases LH secretion in male rats, an effect which can be prevented by coadministration of GABA agonists. Application of NAL into the POA of ovariectomized (ovx),(More)
We investigated the effect of ovariectomy (OVX) and subsequent estradiol benzoate (EB) treatment upon the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced LH secretion in adult female rats. Furthermore, the release of LHRH, norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from superfused hypothalamic fragments(More)
Cholecystokinin (CCK) and substance P (SP) concentrations were measured in discrete brain areas of adult male and diestrous female rats. Significant sex differences in CCK concentration were found in the ventromedial hypothalamic area, medial and lateral preoptic area, nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca, ventral tegmental area, entorhinal and in several(More)
Gonadotrophin hormone releasing hormone (GnRH) is the primary messenger involved in sexual maturation and the onset of puberty. The activity of these neurons are controlled by several neurotransmitters systems. The onset of puberty implies changes from a prepubertal type of gonadotrophin secretion, characterized by a low activity of GnRH neurons, to an(More)
Norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) concentrations and turnover rates have been studied in the n. accumbens, medial preoptic area (MPO) and anterior and posterior parts of the mediobasal hypothalamus of developing rats. Turnover rates are determined by injection of alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine 30 and 90 min prior to decapitation. NE concentrations and turnover(More)
In summary, PACAP actions on gonadotrope cells are schematically outlined in FIGURE 5. PACAP is produced by and secreted from gonadotropes. The peptide increases LH release in an autocrine manner by a direct stimulatory action via the PACAP receptor and, as suggested by Culler and Paschall, by amplification of the LHRH stimulus. Hence, our data support the(More)