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Bisphenol A is a widely used industrial chemical with many potential sources of human exposure. Bisphenol A is a weak estrogen and has been implicated as an "endocrine disruptor". This term is used for a variety of chemicals encountered in the environment which have estrogenic activity. It has been postulated that human exposure to these chemicals may(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weak estrogen. Pharmacokinetic studies of BPA have demonstrated a rapid and extensive metabolism of BPA to the nonestrogenic BPA-monoglucuronide (BPA-gluc). Some investigators have reported that BPA was found at parts per billion concentrations in the tissues or urine of humans without known exposure to BPA. This work developed a(More)
Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ("environmentally") exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely distributed and exhibits weak estrogenic activity. In contrast to BPA, the corresponding glucuronide metabolite is not estrogenic. Therefore, free and total BPA were determined in human urine samples to assess the significance of free BPA for risk assessment. In only 10% of 474 samples from 287 subjects was free BPA detected in a(More)
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) can currently be detected in many environmental media and biota, as well as in humans. Because of their persistence and their potential to accumulate they are of toxicological concern. The present review presents the current knowledge of PFC monitoring data in environmental media relevant for human exposure. In this context,(More)
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a group of chemicals widely used for many applications. In this study PFCs were investigated in maternal blood during pregnancy (at two time points) (n = 40 and 38) and 6 months after delivery (n = 47), in cord blood (n = 33) and in blood of infants six (n = 40) and nineteen months (n = 24) after birth, and monthly in(More)
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin produced by several fungi of Aspergillus and Penicillium species, may contaminate agricultural products, resulting in chronic human exposure. In rats, OTA is a potent nephrotoxin, and repeated administration of OTA for 2 years to rats in doses up to 0.21 mg/kg of body wt resulted in high incidences of renal tumors arising(More)
A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method based on the combination of constant neutral loss scans (CNL) with product ion scans was developed on a linear ion trap. The method is applicable for the detection and identification of analytes with identical chemical substructures (such as conjugates of xenobiotics formed in(More)
The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potent nephrotoxin and renal carcinogen in rodents. However, the mechanism of OTA-induced tumor formation is unknown and conflicting results have been obtained regarding the potential of OTA to bind to DNA. OTA is poorly metabolized, and no reactive intermediates capable of interacting with DNA have been detected in(More)
The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28-61y) who ingested a(More)