Learn More
Immune recognition of cytosolic DNA represents a central antiviral defence mechanism. Within the host, short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) continuously arises during the repair of DNA damage induced by endogenous and environmental genotoxic stress. Here we show that short ssDNA traverses the nuclear membrane, but is drawn into the nucleus by binding to the(More)
Studies of RNA interference (RNAi) provide evidence that in addition to the well-characterized cytoplasmic mechanisms, nuclear mechanisms also exist. The mechanism by which the nuclear RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is formed in mammalian cells, as well as the relationship between the RNA silencing pathways in nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments is(More)
OBJECTIVES The HIV restriction factor, SAMHD1 (SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1), is a triphosphohydrolase that degrades deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs). Mutations in SAMHD1 cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), an inflammatory disorder that shares phenotypic similarity with systemic lupus erythematosus, including activation of(More)
Ribonuclease H2 plays an essential role for genome stability as it removes ribonucleotides misincorporated into genomic DNA by replicative polymerases and resolves RNA/DNA hybrids. Biallelic mutations in the genes encoding the three RNase H2 subunits cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), an early-onset inflammatory encephalopathy that phenotypically(More)
SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a dGTP-dependent triphosphohydrolase that degrades deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) thereby limiting the intracellular dNTP pool. Mutations in SAMHD1 cause Aicardi–Goutières syndrome (AGS), an inflammatory encephalopathy that mimics congenital viral infection and that phenotypically overlaps(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) offers a powerful tool to specifically direct the degradation of complementary RNAs, and thus has great therapeutic potential for targeting diseases. Despite the reported preferences of RNAi, there is still a need for new techniques that will allow for a detailed mechanistic characterization of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)(More)
Investigations of enzymes involved in DNA metabolism have strongly benefited from the establishment of single molecule techniques. These experiments frequently require elaborate DNA substrates, which carry chemical labels or nucleic acid tertiary structures. Preparing such constructs often represents a technical challenge: long modified DNA molecules are(More)
The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE3 colocalizes with beta-actin at the leading edge of directionally migrating cells. Using human osteosarcoma cells (SaOS-2), rat osteoblasts (calvaria), and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, we identified a novel role for NHE3 via beta-actin in anode and cathode directed motility, during electrotaxis. NHE3 knockdown by RNAi(More)
We present an approach for the accumulation and filtering of nano- and microparticles in microfluidic devices that is based on the generation of electric traveling waves in the radio-frequency range. Upon application of the electric field via a microelectrode array, complex particle trajectories and particle accumulation are observed in well-defined regions(More)
We investigate triplet-triplet annihilation in molecular host-guest systems where triplets are localized on spatially separated guest molecules. Our results indicate that the dominant mechanism of annihilation is single-step long-range (Förster-type) energy transfer between two excited guests. This mechanism leads to a fundamental limit for the efficiency(More)