Wolfgang Schmidt

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BACKGROUND Unlike most antihyperglycaemic drugs, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have a glucose-dependent action and promote weight loss. We compared the efficacy and safety of liraglutide, a human GLP-1 analogue, with exenatide, an exendin-based GLP-1 receptor agonist. METHODS Adults with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes on(More)
Peptides of the glucagon/vasoactive-intestinal-peptide (VIP) peptide family share a considerable sequence similarity at their N-terminus. They either start with Tyr-Ala, His-Ala or His-Ser which might be in part potential targets for dipeptidyl-peptidase IV, a highly specialized aminopeptidase removing dipeptides only from peptides with N-terminal(More)
Iron is an essential nutrient for plants and crucial for a variety of cellular functions. In most soils, iron is present in large quantities, but mainly in forms that are not available to plants. Mobilization of iron by plants is achieved by different strategies, either by secretion of plant-borne chelators or by reductive and proton-promoted processes.(More)
OBJECTIVE Defects in glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion have been reported in some patients with type 2 diabetes after meal ingestion. We addressed the following questions: 1) Is the quantitative impairment in GLP-1 levels different after mixed meal or isolated glucose ingestion? 2) Which endogenous factors are associated with the concentrations of(More)
Past and present pressures on forest resources have led to a drastic decrease in the surface area of unmanaged forests in Europe. Changes in forest structure, composition, and dynamics inevitably lead to changes in the biodiversity of forest-dwelling species. The possible biodiversity gains and losses due to forest management (i.e., anthropogenic pressures(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The gut-derived peptide glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has been suggested as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of various intestinal diseases. However, the acute effects of GLP-2 on gastric functions as well as on glucose and lipid homeostasis in humans are less well characterized. METHODS Fifteen healthy male volunteers were(More)
The myotropic effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a novel brain-gut peptide with high sequence homology to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), was studied in the isolated guinea pig ileum in vitro. PACAP contracts the guinea pig ileum significantly more potently and efficiently compared with VIP. PACAP-induced(More)
The presence of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), a homologue of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), in enteric neurons suggests that it may involved in the regulation of the descending relaxation phase of the peristaltic reflex. The role of PACAP was evaluated by measurement of PACAP release and by immuno-neutralization with specific(More)
The effects of different i.v. doses of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on glucose homeostasis and gastric emptying were compared in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twelve patients with type 2 diabetes received three different infusion rates of GLP-1 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 pmol/kg x min) or placebo in the fasting state and after a solid test meal (containing(More)
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) are important factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and have a promising therapeutic potential. Alterations of their secretion, in vivo degradation, and elimination in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) have not yet been characterized. Ten patients with CRI (aged(More)