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Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates antibody gene diversification by creating U:G mismatches. However, AID is not specific for antibody genes; Off-target lesions can activate oncogenes or cause chromosome translocations. Despite its importance in these transactions little is known about how AID finds its targets. We performed an shRNA(More)
The c-Myc HLH-bZIP protein has been implicated in physiological or pathological growth, proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, and differentiation at the cellular, tissue, or organismal levels via regulation of numerous target genes. No principle yet unifies Myc action due partly to an incomplete inventory and functional accounting of Myc's targets. To(More)
Chromosomal rearrangements, including translocations, require formation and joining of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). These events disrupt the integrity of the genome and are frequently involved in producing leukemias, lymphomas and sarcomas. Despite the importance of these events, current understanding of their genesis is limited. To examine the origins(More)
The critical initial step in V(D)J recombination, binding of RAG1 and RAG2 to recombination signal sequences flanking antigen receptor V, D, and J gene segments, has not previously been characterized in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that RAG protein binding occurs in a highly focal manner to a small region of active chromatin encompassing Ig kappa and Tcr(More)
Single-channel and [ 3 H]ryanodine binding experiments were carried out to examine the effects of imperatoxin activator (IpTx a ), a 33 amino acid peptide isolated from the venom of the African scorpion Pandinus imperator , on rabbit skeletal and canine cardiac muscle Ca 2 1 release channels (CRCs). Single channel currents from purified CRCs incorporated(More)
The RAG1 endonuclease, together with its cofactor RAG2, is essential for V(D)J recombination but is a potent threat to genome stability. The sources of RAG1 mis-targeting and the mechanisms that have evolved to suppress it are poorly understood. Here, we report that RAG1 associates with chromatin at thousands of active promoters and enhancers in the genome(More)
Recurrent chromosomal translocations underlie both haematopoietic and solid tumours. Their origin has been ascribed to selection of random rearrangements, targeted DNA damage, or frequent nuclear interactions between translocation partners; however, the relative contribution of each of these elements has not been measured directly or on a large scale. Here(More)
Although the cellular concentration of miRNAs is critical to their function, how miRNA expression and abundance are regulated during ontogeny is unclear. We applied miRNA-, mRNA-, and ChIP-Seq to characterize the microRNome during lymphopoiesis within the context of the transcriptome and epigenome. We show that lymphocyte-specific miRNAs are either tightly(More)
A key finding of the ENCODE project is that the enhancer landscape of mammalian cells undergoes marked alterations during ontogeny. However, the nature and extent of these changes are unclear. As part of the NIH Mouse Regulome Project, we here combined DNaseI hypersensitivity, ChIP-seq, and ChIA-PET technologies to map the promoter-enhancer interactomes of(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) promotes chromosomal translocations by inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and oncogenes in the G1 phase. RPA is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein that associates with resected DSBs in the S phase and facilitates the assembly of factors involved in homologous repair(More)