Wolfgang Pape

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Based on the current weight of evidence of all available data, the risk for humans from the use of nano-structured titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) or zinc oxide (ZnO) currently used in cosmetic preparations or sunscreens is considered negligible. There is a large body of information that when viewed in its entirety is considered as sufficient to demonstrate that(More)
In spite of over 20 years of effort, no single in vitro assay has been developed and validated as a full regulatory replacement for the Draize Eye Irritation test. However, companies have been using in vitro methods to screen new formulations and in some cases as their primary assessment of eye irritation potential for many years. The present report shows(More)
The principal goal of this study was to determine whether the results from a set of selected currently available alternative methods as used by cosmetics companies are valid for predicting the eye irritation potential of cosmetics formulations and ingredients and, as a consequence, could be valid replacements for the Draize eye irritation test. For the(More)
The CTFA Evaluation of Alternatives Program is an evaluation of the relationship between data from the Draize primary eye irritation test and comparable data from a selection of promising in vitro eye irritation tests. In Phase III, data from the Draize test and 41 in vitro endpoints on 25 representative surfactant-based personal care formulations were(More)
An in vitro red blood cell assay (RBC assay) is presented that allows one to estimate irritation potentials of tensides and detergents. The estimation is based on the differentiation between cell membrane lysis and cell protein denaturation. Both effects are measured photometrically by use of the inherent native dye oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). Besides hemolysis(More)
In the EU/COLIPA validation programme on "Photoirritation in vitro", two core tests and a number of mechanistically based tests were carried out to examine their suitability as regulatory tests for phototoxicity testing. In the meantime, one core test, the 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test (NRU PT) has been validated and has been accepted by ECVAM(More)
Three 'alternative' methods for the screening of the primary irritation potentials of topically applied preparations and raw materials are presented as a test battery and their in vitro endpoints are compared with in vivo data. The first method is the intermediate test on the chorioallantoic membrane of hens' fertilized eggs, which is generally proposed for(More)
A national interlaboratory study to validate two alternative methods to the Draize rabbit's eye test, co-ordinated by ZEBET at the German Federal Health Office (BGA), is described. The aim of the study is to classify chemicals according to their irritation potential using the neutral red/kenacid blue (NR/KB) cytotoxicity assay and the hen's egg(More)
12 well-known phototoxicants used in the EC/COLIPA (The European Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association) interlaboratory validation trial on 'Photoirritation in vitro' have been analysed in view of their ability to induce photohaemolysis. As well as, or instead of, this effect, oxidative reactions involving oxyhaemoglobin have been monitored, by(More)