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Neutrophils are the first line of defense at the site of an infection. They encounter and kill microbes intracellularly upon phagocytosis or extracellularly by degranulation of antimicrobial proteins and the release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). NETs were shown to ensnare and kill microbes. However, their complete protein composition and the(More)
To identify new components that regulate the inflammatory cascade during sepsis, we characterized the functions of myeloid-related protein-8 (Mrp8, S100A8) and myeloid-related protein-14 (Mrp14, S100A9), two abundant cytoplasmic proteins of phagocytes. We now demonstrate that mice lacking Mrp8-Mrp14 complexes are protected from endotoxin-induced lethal(More)
Deficiens, a homeotic gene involved in the genetic control of flower development, codes for a putative transcription factor. Upon mutation of the gene, petals are transformed to sepals and stamens to carpels, indicating that deficiens is essential for the activation of genes required for petal and stamen formation. In a search for putative target genes of(More)
Bacterial infection often results in the formation of tissue abscesses, which represent the primary site of interaction between invading bacteria and the innate immune system. We identify the host protein calprotectin as a neutrophil-dependent factor expressed inside Staphylococcus aureus abscesses. Neutrophil-derived calprotectin inhibited S. aureus growth(More)
Homeotic mutants have been useful for the study of animal development. Such mutants are also known in plants. The isolation and molecular analysis of several homeotic genes in Antirrhinum majus provide insights into the underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms of flower development. A model is presented of how the characteristic sequential pattern of(More)
Five genes with homology to the floral homeotic genes deficiens of Antirrhinum and agamous of Arabidopsis were isolated from tomato. Each of the five genes is unique in the genome and could be localized to a different chromosome by RFLP mapping. Four of the tomato genes (hereafter TM) are flower-specific with distinguishable temporal expression. TM4 and TM8(More)
Monocytes and macrophages may either promote or down-regulate inflammatory reactions depending on their state of activation. The effects of glucocorticoids (GCs), the most widely used immunosuppressive drugs, on monocytes are currently not well defined. By analyzing the GC-induced expression pattern in human monocytes by microarray technology, we identified(More)
We present the genomic structure of Tam1, a transposable element from Antirrhinum majus. The Tam1 element is 15.2 kb long and includes two genes that are transcribed to produce a 2.4 kb (tnp1) and a 5 kb mRNA (tnp2). These transcripts partially overlap and the exons are scattered over the whole element. Tnp1 encodes a 53 kDa protein as deduced from the cDNA(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent member of the PAS-bHLH-family of nuclear receptors. Anthropogenic ligands include environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Over-activation of the AHR causes thymus atrophy and immunosuppression. Signaling via the AHR changes the thymocyte differentiation program(More)