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Polyethylenimine (PEI) is a cationic polymer which can be complexed with DNA. PEI-DNA complexes can be used for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery approaches. The excess of positive surface charges enhances the association of the complex with the plasmamembrane of cells and facilitates their uptake by endocytosis. The intracellular transport pathway from(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors with essential functions in lipid, glucose and energy homeostasis, cell differentiation, inflammation and metabolic disorders, and represent important drug targets. PPARs heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and can form transcriptional activator or repressor complexes at(More)
We attempted to devise a transcription system in which a particular DNA sequence of interest could be inducibly expressed under the control of a modified polymerase III (pol III) promoter. Its activation requires a mutated transcription factor not contained endogenously in human cells. We constructed such a promoter by fusing elements of the beta-lactamase(More)
Ovarian cancer is typically accompanied by the occurrence of malignant ascites containing large number of macrophages. It has been suggested that these tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are skewed to alternative polarization (M2) and thereby play an essential role in therapy resistance and metastatic spread. In our study, we have investigated the nature,(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta (PPARbeta) has been implicated in tumorigenesis, but its precise role remains unclear. Here, we show that the growth of syngeneic Pparb wild-type tumors is impaired in Pparb(-/-) mice, concomitant with a diminished blood flow and an abundance of hyperplastic microvascular structures. Matrigel plugs(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) not only play a key role in regulating metabolic pathways but also modulate inflammatory processes, pointing to a functional interaction between PPAR and cytokine signaling pathways. In this study, we show by genome-wide transcriptional profiling that PPARβ/δ and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that modulate target gene expression in response to natural fatty acid ligands and synthetic agonists. It is noteworthy that all trans-retinoic acid (atRA) has recently been reported to act as a ligand for PPARbeta/delta, to activate its(More)
Besides its established functions in intermediary metabolism and developmental processes, the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) has a less defined role in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we have identified a function for PPARβ/δ in cancer cell invasion. We show that two structurally divergent inhibitory ligands(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARs) modulate target gene expression in response to unsaturated fatty acid ligands, such as arachidonic acid (AA). Here, we report that the AA metabolite 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) activates the ligand-dependent activation domain (AF2) of PPARbeta/delta in vivo, competes with synthetic agonists in(More)
A role for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta (PPARbeta) in oncogenesis has been suggested by a number of observations but its precise role remains elusive. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2, prostacyclin), a major arachidonic acid (AA) derived cyclooxygenase (Cox) product, has been proposed as a PPARbeta agonist. Here, we show that(More)