Wolfgang M. Schwarz

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A literature review reveals many lines of evidence that both delayed rectifier and inward rectifier potassium channels are multi-ion pores. These include unidirectional flux ratios given by the 2--2.5 power of the electrochemical activity ratio, very steeply voltage-dependent block with monovalent blocking ions, relief of block by permeant ions added to the(More)
Despite its simple chemical composition, cellulose exists in a number of crystalline and amorphous topologies. Its insolubility and heterogeneity makes native cellulose a recalcitrant substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Microorganisms meet this challenge with the aid of a multi-enzyme system. Aerobic bacteria produce numerous individual, extra-cellular(More)
To investigate the voltage dependence of the Na−/K− pump, current-voltage relations were determined in prophasearrested oocytes ofXenopus laevis. All solutions contained 5mm Ba2− and 20mm tetraethylammonium (TEA) to block K− channels. If. in addition, the Na+/K+ pump is blocked by ouabain, K+-sensitive currents no larger than 50 nA/cm2 remain. Reductions in(More)
Fourteen ORFs have been identified in the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome. ORF 3a of SARS-CoV codes for a recently identified transmembrane protein, but its function remains unknown. In this study we confirmed the 3a protein expression and investigated its localization at the surface of SARS-CoV-infected or(More)
A characteristic of mast cells is the degranulation in response to various stimuli. Here we have investigated the effects of various physical stimuli in the human mast-cell line HMC-1. We have shown that HMC-1 express the transient receptor potential channels TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPV4. In the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration, increasing mechanical stress(More)
Sodium currents were studied under voltage clamp in the presence of neutral, amine, and quaternary local anesthetic compounds. Use-dependent block was observed as a cumulative depression of INa seen with repetitive depolarizing test pulses applied at frequencies of 2-10s-1. With quaternary QX-314, the time constant of use dependence was long, and with(More)
Application of Ca2+ to the inner surface of red-cell membranes activates unitary currents that can be measured in cell-attached and cell-free membrane patches. Ca2+ can be replaced by Pb2+ to activate the single channels. In addition to internal Ca2+ external K+ has to be present. The channels are preferentially permeable to K+ with a selectivity ratio(More)
Several studies suggest that the open reading frame 3 (ORF3) gene of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is related to viral infectivity and pathogenicity, but its function remains unknown. Here, we propose a structure model of the ORF3 protein consisting of four TM domains and forming a tetrameric assembly. ORF3 protein can be detected in PEDV-infected(More)
The function of GAT1, the transporter for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, is characterized by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and measurements of GABA-induced uptake of [3H]GABA, 22Na+, and 36Cl-, and GABA-evoked currents under voltage-clamp conditions. N-[4,4-Diphenyl-3-butenyl]-nipecotic acid (SKF-89976-A), a specific inhibitor of GAT1, is used(More)
In Kinetoplastida, trypanothione and trypanothione reductase (TRYR) provide an intracellular reducing environment, substituting for the glutathione-glutathione reductase system found in most other organisms. To investigate the physiological role of TRYR in Trypanosoma brucei, we generated cells containing just one trypanothione reductase gene, TRYR, which(More)