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The detection of osmotic stimuli is essential for all organisms, yet few osmoreceptive proteins are known, none of them in vertebrates. By employing a candidate-gene approach based on genes encoding members of the TRP superfamily of ion channels, we cloned cDNAs encoding the vanilloid receptor-related osmotically activated channel (VR-OAC) from the rat,(More)
Here we provide evidence for a critical role of the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4 (TRPV4) in normal bladder function. Immunofluorescence demonstrated TRPV4 expression in mouse and rat urothelium and vascular endothelium, but not in other cell types of the bladder. Intracellular Ca2+ measurements on urothelial cells(More)
Leptin elicits a metabolic response that cannot be explained by its anorectic effects alone. To examine the mechanism underlying leptin's metabolic actions, we used transcription profiling to identify leptin-regulated genes in ob/ob liver. Leptin was found to specifically repress RNA levels and enzymatic activity of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1(More)
Stathmin is a cytosolic protein that binds tubulin and destabilizes cellular microtubules, an activity regulated by phosphorylation. Despite its abundant expression in the developing mammalian nervous system and despite its high degree of evolutionary conservation, stathmin-deficient mice do not exhibit a developmental phenotype.(1) Here we report that(More)
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels have been implicated as mediators of calcium influx in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells and are potentially important modulators of vascular tone. However, very little is known about the functional roles of TRPV4 in the resistance vasculature or how these channels influence(More)
Latency in nervous tissue caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an intriguing feature of herpes-virus' neurotropism. HSV-1 and VZV latency are the causes of ophthalmic zoster and recurrent HSV infections in the distributions of the trigeminal branches. HSV-1 neuronal latency may play a role in the etiopathogenesis(More)
To investigate the structural role of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in vivo, mice carrying a null mutation in GFAP were generated. In 7/14 mutant animals older than 18 months of age, hydrocephalus associated with white matter loss was detected. Mutant mice displayed abnormal myelination including the presence of actively myelinating(More)
Sustained increase in intraocular pressure represents a major risk factor for eye disease, yet the cellular mechanisms of pressure transduction in the posterior eye are essentially unknown. Here we show that the mouse retina expresses mRNA and protein for the polymodal transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) cation channel known to mediate(More)
Exacerbated sensitivity to mechanical stimuli that are normally innocuous or mildly painful (mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia) occurs during inflammation and underlies painful diseases. Proteases that are generated during inflammation and disease cleave protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) on afferent nerves to cause mechanical hyperalgesia in the skin(More)
Primary osmosensory neurons in the mouse organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) transduce hypertonicity via the activation of nonselective cation channels that cause membrane depolarization and increased action potential discharge, and this effect is absent in mice lacking expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (Trpv1) gene (Ciura(More)