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Animal models for seizures and epilepsy have played a fundamental role in advancing our understanding of basic mechanisms underlying ictogenesis and epileptogenesis and have been instrumental in the discovery and preclinical development of novel antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, there is growing concern that the efficacy of drug treatment of epilepsy has(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) serves as a protective mechanism for the brain by preventing entry of potentially harmful substances from free access to the central nervous system (CNS). Tight junctions present between the brain microvessel endothelial cells form a diffusion barrier, which selectively excludes most blood-borne substances from entering the(More)
Resistance to drug treatment is an important hurdle in the therapy of many brain disorders, including brain cancer, epilepsy, schizophrenia, depression and infection of the brain with HIV. Consequently, there is a pressing need to develop new and more effective treatment strategies. Mechanisms of resistance that operate in cancer and infectious diseases(More)
The present study was designed to determine the relative contribution of the gastrocnemius muscle to isometric plantar flexor torque production at varying knee angles, while investigating the activation of the gastrocnemius muscle at standardised non-optimal lengths. Voluntary plantar flexor torque, supramaximally stimulated twitch torque and myoelectric(More)
It is widely accepted that excitatory amino acid transmitters such as glutamate are involved in the initiation of seizures and their propagation. Most attention has been directed to synapses using NMDA receptors, but more recent evidence indicates potential roles for ionotropic non-NMDA (AMPA/kainate) and metabotropic glutamate receptors as well. Based on(More)
PURPOSE Weak direct currents induce lasting alterations of cortical excitability in animals and humans, which are controlled by polarity, duration of stimulation, and current strength applied. To evaluate its anticonvulsant potential, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was tested in a modified cortical ramp-stimulation model of focal epilepsy.(More)
In epilepsy research, there is a growing interest in the role of the piriform cortex (PC) in the development and maintenance of limbic kindling and other types of limbic epileptogenesis leading to complex partial seizures. Neurophysiological studies on PC or amygdala-PC slice preparations from kindled rats showed that kindling of the amygdala induces(More)
We have previously shown that the novel anticonvulsant levetiracetam exerts potent anticonvulsant activity against both focal and secondarily generalized seizures in fully amygdala-kindled rats, i.e. , a model of temporal lobe epilepsy. We examined whether levetiracetam also exhibits antiepileptogenic activity, i.e., prevents or retards acquisition or(More)
Since its first marketing as an antiepileptic drug (AED) 35 years ago in France, valproate has become established worldwide as one of the most widely used AEDs in the treatment of both generalised and partial seizures in adults and children. The broad spectrum of antiepileptic efficacy of valproate is reflected in preclinical in vivo and in vitro models,(More)