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The most common cause of an increase of the hematocrit is secondary to elevated erythropoietin levels. Erythrocytosis is assumed to cause higher blood viscosity that could put the cardiovascular system at hemodynamic and rheological risks. Secondary erythrocytosis results from tissue hypoxia, and one can hardly define what cardiovascular consequences are(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a protein with antiapoptotic, mitogenic, and permeability-increasing activities specific for vascular endothelium. VEGF mRNA, which has five isoforms, is produced by nonmalignant cells in response to hypoxia and inflammation and by tumor cells in constitutively high concentrations. Because VEGF plays a(More)
Rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP alpha; EC50, 1 nM) was shown to stimulate cAMP formation in cultured rat renal mesangial cells. CGRP concentration dependently (EC50, 1 nM) also inhibited contraction of mesangial cells by angiotensin II (10 nM). Angiotensin II (10 nM) caused a transient increase of the intracellular calcium concentration from 140(More)
  • W Jelkmann
  • 2005
This article is a selective extension of a review on recombinant human erythropoietin (rHu-EPO) as an anti-anaemic drug, published in this journal in 2000. It summarises the recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1 (HIF-1) regulates O(2)-dependent genes, including the EPO gene in brain.(More)
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) increase red blood cell (RBC) production in bone marrow by activating the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) on erythrocytic-progenitor cells. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are approved in the United States and Europe for treating anaemia in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy based on randomised,(More)
We have generated a transgenic mouse line that reaches a hematocrit concentration of 0.85 due to constitutive overexpression of human erythropoietin in an oxygen-independent manner. Unexpectedly, this excessive erythrocytosis did not lead to thrombembolic complications in all investigated organs at any age. Thus, we investigated the mechanisms preventing(More)
Hemoglobin mass is a key factor for maximal exercise capacity. Some athletes apply prohibited techniques and substances with intent to increase hemoglobin mass and physical performance, and this is often difficult to prove directly. Autologous red blood cell transfusion cannot be traced on reinfusion, and also recombinant erythropoietic proteins are(More)
Erythropoietin primarily serves as an essential growth factor for erythrocyte precursor cells. However, there is increasing evidence that erythropoietin (EPO)/EPO receptor (EPO-R) signaling operates as a potential tissue-protective system outside the bone marrow. Arguing that growing hair follicles (HF) are among the most rapidly proliferating tissues, we(More)
The European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) has developed guidelines to ensure similarity, 'in terms of quality , safety and efficacy', between similar biological medicinal products (biosimilars) in comparison to the originators The quality and safety of biosim-ilar recombinant human erythropoietins (rhEPOs) has been previously discussed [1–3]. The(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is stated to be a possible promoter of the development and the severity of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The secretion of VEGF in granulosa cells seems to be human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) dependent. In this prospective study, the data of 10 patients suffering from severe OHSS with ascites and(More)