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A literature review reveals many lines of evidence that both delayed rectifier and inward rectifier potassium channels are multi-ion pores. These include unidirectional flux ratios given by the 2--2.5 power of the electrochemical activity ratio, very steeply voltage-dependent block with monovalent blocking ions, relief of block by permeant ions added to the(More)
To investigate the voltage dependence of the Na+/K+ pump, current-voltage relations were determined in prophase-arrested oocytes of Xenopus laevis. All solutions contained 5 mM Ba2+ and 20 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) to block K+ channels. If, in addition, the Na+/K+ pump is blocked by ouabain, K(+)-sensitive currents no larger than 50 nA/cm2 remain.(More)
Sodium currents were studied under voltage clamp in the presence of neutral, amine, and quaternary local anesthetic compounds. Use-dependent block was observed as a cumulative depression of INa seen with repetitive depolarizing test pulses applied at frequencies of 2-10s-1. With quaternary QX-314, the time constant of use dependence was long, and with(More)
The function of GAT1, the transporter for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, is characterized by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and measurements of GABA-induced uptake of [3H]GABA, 22Na+, and 36Cl-, and GABA-evoked currents under voltage-clamp conditions. N-[4,4-Diphenyl-3-butenyl]-nipecotic acid (SKF-89976-A), a specific inhibitor of GAT1, is used(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the beta subunit of the Na+ pump is essential for the alpha subunit to express catalytic activity and for assembly of the holoenzyme in the plasma membrane. We report here that injection into Xenopus laevis oocytes of cRNAs specific for beta 1 subunit isoforms of the Na+ pump of four species (Torpedo californica, chicken, mouse(More)
Despite its simple chemical composition, cellulose exists in a number of crystalline and amorphous topologies. Its insolubility and heterogeneity makes native cellulose a recalcitrant substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Microorganisms meet this challenge with the aid of a multi-enzyme system. Aerobic bacteria produce numerous individual, extra-cellular(More)
The nucleotide sequence of clone pTT26 (3786 bp), containing the gene for 1,3-beta-glucanase LamA (laminarinase) from Thermotoga neapolitana, was determined. It contains an ORF encoding a protein of 646 aa (73328 Da). The central part of the protein is homologous to the complete catalytic domain of bacterial and some eukaryotic endo-1,3-beta-D-glucanases(More)
In Na(+)- and K(+)-free solution, an inward-directed current can be detected in Xenopus oocytes, which is inhibited by cardiac glycosides and activated by ATP. Therefore, it is assumed to be generated by the Na+,K+ pump. At negative membrane potentials, the pump current increases with more negative potentials and with increasing [H+] in the external medium.(More)
Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are often part of the complex hydrolytic extracellular enzymes from bacteria and may modulate their catalytic activity. The thermostable catalytic domain of laminarinase Lam16A from Thermotoga neapolitana (glycosyl hydrolase family 16) is flanked by two CBMs, 148 and 161 aa long. They share a sequence identity of 30%, are(More)
Endoglucanase and cellobiohydrolase components of thermophilic cellulases can be detected in situ after gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate by incorporating a mixed linkage beta-glucan (barley beta-glucan, lichenan) in the separation gel. Zymograms are prepared after a renaturation treatment and incubation by staining the gel with(More)