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Cerebral dopamine depletion is the hallmark of Parkinson disease. Because dopamine modulates ontogenetic neurogenesis, depletion of dopamine might affect neural precursors in the subependymal zone and subgranular zone of the adult brain. Here we provide ultrastructural evidence showing that highly proliferative precursors in the adult subependymal zone(More)
The coexistence of galanin (GAL)-like immunoreactivity (LI) with markers for catecholamines, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), GABA, or some neuropeptides was mapped in the rat CNS by using adjacent sections, as well as by elution-restaining and double-labeling immunocytochemistry. Many instances of coexistence were observed, but there were also numerous(More)
The pathophysiology of periodic limb movements and sensory leg discomfort in the restless legs syndrome is unknown. With high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, we localized for the first time cerebral generators associated with sensory leg discomfort and periodic limb movements in 19 patients with restless legs syndrome. During sensory leg(More)
In a case-control study, we investigated the possible etiologic relevance to Parkinson's disease (PD) of rural factors such as farming activity, pesticide exposures, well-water drinking, and animal contacts; toxicologic exposures such as wood preservatives, heavy metals, and solvents; general anesthesia; head trauma; and differences in the intrauterine(More)
GABAergic neurons were localized in the rat basal ganglia by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) immunohistochemistry. In the striatum (caudato-putamen, accumbens nucleus) a medium density of GAD-positive terminals was observed; a small number of medium-to-large size neurons and the vast majority of medium-size neurons were GAD immunoreactive. In addition, opioid(More)
OBJECTIVES Pramipexole, a non-ergot dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, was investigated as an add on drug in advanced parkinsonian patients with motor fluctuations to assess efficacy, safety, and tolerance. METHODS Seventy eight patients of either sex with advanced Parkinson's disease and treatment complications such as motor fluctuations were enrolled into(More)
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been shown to induce parkinsonism in man and non-human primates. Monoamine-oxidase B (MAO-B) has been reported to be implicated in both MPTP-induced parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease, since selegiline (L-deprenyl), an irreversible MAO-B inhibitor, prevents MPTP-induced neurotoxicity(More)
Previous studies have shown that non-invasive stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) could modulate experimentally induced pain and working memory (WM) in healthy subjects. However, the two aspects have never been assessed concomitantly. The present study was set up to investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation(More)
In order to develop a rodent model displaying a progressive degeneration of the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra, we bilaterally injected the tracer substance FluoroGold into the terminal field of the nigrostriatal projection, i.e. the striatum. One week later, rats received unilateral injections of 20 micrograms 6-hydroxydopamine into one of the(More)