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The Visual Object Tracking challenge 2015, VOT2015, aims at comparing short-term single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance. Results of 62 trackers are presented. The number of tested trackers makes VOT 2015 the largest benchmark on shortterm tracking to date. For each participating tracker, a short description(More)
The Visual Object Tracking challenge VOT2016 aims at comparing short-term single-object visual trackers that do not apply pre-learned models of object appearance. Results of 70 trackers are presented, with a large number of trackers being published at major computer vision conferences and journals in the recent years. The number of tested state-of-the-art(More)
The spread of HIV between immune cells is greatly enhanced by cell-cell adhesions called virological synapses, although the underlying mechanisms have been unclear. With use of an infectious, fluorescent clone of HIV, we tracked the movement of Gag in live CD4 T cells and captured the direct translocation of HIV across the virological synapse. Quantitative,(More)
Pcf11p, an essential subunit of the yeast cleavage factor IA, is required for pre-mRNA 3' end processing, binds to the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and is involved in transcription termination. We show that the conserved CTD interaction domain (CID) of Pcf11p is essential for cell viability. Interestingly,(More)
RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription termination requires co-transcriptional recognition of a functional polyadenylation signal, but the molecular mechanisms that transduce this signal to pol II remain unclear. We show that Yhh1p/Cft1p, the yeast homologue of the mammalian AAUAAA interacting protein CPSF 160, is an RNA-binding protein and provide(More)
Cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can initiate infections, but contact between infected and uninfected T cells can enhance viral spread through intercellular structures called virological synapses (VS). The relative contribution of VS to cell-free viral transfer has not been carefully measured. Using an ultrasensitive, fluorescent virus(More)
Six different protein factors are required in vitro for 3' end formation of mammalian pre-mRNAs by endonucleolytic cleavage and polyadenylation. Five of the factors have been purified and most of their components cloned, but cleavage factor II(m) (CF II(m)) remained uncharacterized. We have purified CF II(m) from HeLa cell nuclear extract by several(More)
The bidirectional nucleocytoplasmic transport of macromolecules is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC) which, in yeast, is composed of approximately 30 different proteins (nucleoporins). Pre-embedding immunogold-electron microscopy revealed that Nic96p, an essential yeast nucleoporin, is located about the cytoplasmic and the nuclear periphery of the(More)
Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF), a key component of the mammalian RNA 3'-end processing machinery, consists of four subunits of 160, 100, 73, and 30 kD. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding the 30-kD polypeptide. Antibodies raised against this protein inhibit cleavage and polyadenylation and(More)
The assembly of infectious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) requires that Gag transport and oligomerization be coordinated with its association with other viral proteins, viral RNAs, and cellular membranes. We have developed a replication-competent HIV type 1 molecular clone that carries a Gag-internal or interdomain green fluorescent protein (iGFP)(More)